23 The percentage of central obesity doubled in men (from 12.2% to 26.7%) but remained stable in women in the most recent decade.24 The
local obesity trend may explain the higher local learn more rate of colorectal cancer in males than females. However, this cannot explain the decreasing risk of colorectal cancer in the younger population in Hong Kong. Hormonal replacement was found to decrease colorectal cancer.25,26 The increasing use of hormonal replacement in postmenopausal women may be one of the causes of decreasing risk of colorectal cancer in those females around 60 years of age. Use of oral contraceptives has been shown to be associated with decreased risk of colorectal cancer27 and this may be partly accountable for the decreasing risk of colorectal cancer in young females observed in the present study. A recent study found that colorectal cancer in those aged 40 years and younger were
in general more poorly differentiated and advanced in staging.28 This suggests that the nature of the colorectal cancer in young people may be different from Cell Cycle inhibitor those in older populations, and so may their pathogenesis. If this is the case, the effect of westernization and other causal factors on the risk of colorectal cancer among young people may be different from older populations. Whether this is an explanation of the decrease in incidence from 1983–2006 in the younger males and females, but rising incidence in 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 older populations, requires further study. In conclusion, the rising incidence of colorectal cancer in Hong Kong is confined to the predominantly older and male population rather than the younger age groups. The reason for the declining incidence of colorectal cancer in the younger age groups needs further exploration. “
“Aim: The factors associated with hepatitis recurrence after discontinuation
of nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) in patients with chronic hepatitis B were analyzed to predict the risk of relapse more accurately. Methods: A total of 126 patients who discontinued NA therapy were recruited retrospectively. The clinical conditions of a successful discontinuation were set as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) below 30 IU/L and serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA below 4.0 log copies/mL. Results: Relapse of hepatitis B were judged to occur when maximal serum ALT became higher than 79 IU/L or when maximal serum HBV DNA surpassed 5.7 log copies/mL following NA discontinuation since these values corresponded with mean values of ALT (30 IU/L) and HBV DNA (4.0 log copies/mL), respectively. At least 90% of patients with either detectable hepatitis B e antigen or serum HBV DNA higher than 3.0 log copies/mL at the time of NA discontinuation relapsed within one year. In the remaining patients, higher levels of both hepatitis B surface and core-related antigens at the time of discontinuation, as well as a shorter course of NA treatment, were significantly associated with relapse by multivariate analysis.