020). Comparisons between APOE ε4 allele bearers and nonbearers, irrespective of pathological phenotype, showed that the CAA burden was higher in APOE ε4 allele carriers, for frontal leptomeningeal vessels (P = 0.012), anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody frontal cortical vessels (P = 0.001) and temporal leptomeningeal vessels (P = 0.007). Furthermore, capillary CAA involvement in the occipital cortex was associated with the possession of APOE ε4 allele (P = 0.03). Moreover, APOE ε4 copy number appeared to have a significant effect on CAA severity scores. APOE ε4 homozygosity was strongly associated with the presence/severity
of capillary CAA across all subregions (frontal; P = 0.022, temporal; P = 0.029, occipital; P = 0.006), and also showed a strong association with more severe scores for cortical CAA in the frontal (P = 0.043) and occipital (P = 0.006) regions. There was, however, no significant
difference in the leptomeningeal CAA scores. There were no significant differences in Aβ plaque load between APOE ε4 allele bearers and nonbearers, or between APOE ε4 heterozygotes and homozygotes. Mean age of onset of disease, mean age at death or mean disease duration or mean brain weight also did not differ between APOE ε4 allele bearers and nonbearers, or between APOE ε4 heterozygotes and homozygotes (Table 2). In the present study, we have described, and defined, four distinct patterns of Aβ deposition, this website PAK5 as SP and/or CAA, within a large cohort of confirmed cases of AD. These encompass, type 1 which describes those cases where Aβ deposition is predominantly in the form of SP with or without CAA within the superficial leptomeningeal vessels. Type 2 describes a similar picture with regards to SP and leptomeningeal vessel involvement but the CAA extends into the deeper, intracortical vessels. Type 3 is ascribed to those cases with cortical capillary involvement with dyshoric change surrounding
the vessel, and the type 4 is attributed to cases that show a CAA-predominant, SP-negative pathology. Other workers have noted pathological heterogeneities, especially with regards to CAA, and have attempted classification. For example, Thal et al.  described two morphological phenotypes which they termed type 1 (that defined cases with cortical capillary involvement as well as artery and arteriole involvement) and type 2 (which defined those with artery and arteriole involvement but no capillary involvement). The classification of Thal et al.  can therefore be presumed to encompass both types 1 and 2 within the present scheme (as type 2), with the present type 3 being equivalent to Thal et al.  type 1. The present scheme employs a more subtle approach and thereby delineates 4 histological subtypes. Various grading systems to assess the severity and distribution of CAA have been formulated over the past two decades. For example, Vonsattel et al.