7 M NaCl Presented data suggest that 20-kDaPS inhibits endocytos

7 M NaCl. Presented data suggest that 20-kDaPS inhibits endocytosis of S. epidermidis bacterial cells at a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, PIA provides protection against opsonophagocytosis and activity of anti-microbial peptides [9, 10]. In the absence of specific opsonizing antibodies, macrophages

are able to clear pathogens by innate immune receptors, such as the group of molecular pattern recognition receptors (PRR), collectively known as scavenger receptors [45]. 20-kDaPS may interfere with or mask staphylococcal antigen(s) promoting phagocytosis [46]; on the other hand, it may interact with a AZD3965 receptor that does not facilitate phagocytosis. Adhesion receptors BVD-523 and phagocytosis receptors can both activate and inhibit each other functions [47]. It has been previously check details shown that 20-kDaPS promotes adhesion to human endothelial cells and this interaction is blocked upon addition of anti-20kDaPS antibodies. Comparable data were acquired by using human macrophages (data not shown),

indicating the presence of a specific ligand for 20-kDaPS on human cells. Adherence of unopsonized bacteria to macrophages does not preclude internalization [48–51]. Nonopsonic binding of pathogens to host phagocytic cells may not always result in phagocytosis, however, it may serve an important role in the immune response [52] Nevertheless, phagocytic activity of macrophages is greatly enhanced if specific antibodies are attached to the pathogen [53]. 20-kDaPS antiserum do not exhibit any cross reactivity with PIA. Antibodies against PNSG and PIA have been found completely cross-reactive [31]. As 20-kDaPS antiserum reacts specifically and strictly with 20-kDaPS, observed biologic properties concern exclusively this entity. Our data show that 20-kDaPS antiserum exhibits opsonic properties as it increases endocytosis of S. epidermidis ATCC35983 by human macrophages. Several surface molecules have been studied as potential antibody targets in order to enhance phagocytic potential of monocytes/macrophages. Opsonic activity of antibodies to S. epidermidis Fbe and AtlE has been demonstrated learn more in a study where fresh alveolar

macrophages from rat ingested and killed S. epidermidis opsonized with anti-Fbe antibodies (raised in rabbit, rat or sheep) to a much higher extent than they ingested and killed nonopsonized bacteria or bacteria opsonized with antibodies directed against AtlE or Embp [53]. Also, a chimerized (murine/human) monoclonal antibody against lipoteichoic acid that was proven protective for CoNS and S. aureus bacteremia in animal models has been also tested to humans [54]. In contrast, antibodies to accumulation-associated protein and lipoteichoic acid had no opsonic activity in vitro and did not protect mice against experimental biomaterial-associated infections [55]. Although, conjugate vaccines based on PIA/PNAG have been shown to be beneficial in animal models [56–60], several doubts for their use in human trials have been documented [61, 62].

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