“Background: During the last 30 years, the median sample s

“Background: During the last 30 years, the median sample size of research studies published in high-impact medical journals has increased manyfold, while the use of non-parametric tests has increased at the expense of t-tests. This paper explores this paradoxical practice and illustrates its consequences.


A simulation study is used to compare the rejection rates of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney (WMW) test and the two-sample t-test for increasing sample size. Samples are drawn from skewed distributions with equal HSP990 price means and medians but with a small difference in spread. A hypothetical case study is used for illustration and motivation.

Results: The WMW test produces, on average, smaller p-values than the t-test. This discrepancy increases with increasing sample size, skewness, and difference in spread. For heavily skewed data, the proportion of p < 0.05 with the WMW test can be greater than 90% if the standard deviations differ by 10% and the number of observations is 1000 in each group.

The high rejection rates of the WMW test should be interpreted as the power to detect that the probability that a random sample from one of the distributions Volasertib clinical trial is less than a random sample from the other distribution is greater than 50%.

Conclusions: Non-parametric tests are most useful for small studies. Using non-parametric tests in large studies may provide answers to the wrong question, thus confusing readers. For studies with a large sample size, t-tests and their corresponding confidence intervals can and should be used even for heavily skewed data.”
“Tripronuclear zygotes (3PN) occur in about 5% of cases in human IVF programmes. Human 3PN zygotes derived from a conventional IVF programme may contain

not only the extra male pronucleus but also a supplementary centriole. Researchers have tried to restore diploidy by removing the extra male pronucleus of the tripronuclear zygote. However, it is still unknown whether the procedure can remove the supernumerary centriole. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of this manipulation by analysing the first mitotic spindles Z-DEVD-FMK concentration of 3PN zygotes that have undergone extra pronuclear removal. A controlled trial was conducted using human 3PN zygotes from conventional IVF treatment. In the experimental group, the assumed extra male pronuclei in the 3PN zygotes were removed. The first cleavage patterns and in vitro development were observed in both groups; polarized light microscopy and immunocytochemistry were used to analyse the first mitotic spindles. The blastocyst formation rate was significantly higher (P=0.007) in the pronuclear-removed group (16.0%) than in the control group (4.5%). No significant differences were found between the groups in the first cleavage patterns and the distributions of the first mitotic spindle structure.

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