Conclusion: PMN functional impairment in AD patients could repres

Conclusion: PMN functional impairment in AD patients could represent an additional cause of skin infections, coupled with other known defects in the innate immune system. The increased MFI of adhesion molecules and TLRs is rather a consequence of the increased skin barrier permeability to bacterial molecules

CCI-779 in vitro capable of stimulating immunological reactions. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Salt marshes are among the most productive systems of the world, with plant primary production limited by soil oxygen deficiency and nutrient availability. Nevertheless, root adaptations to anoxia and nutrient acquisition are different and often incompatible. The SW Atlantic salt marshes are characterized by high densities of the deep (up to 1 m) burrowing crab Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851) that may change soil physical and chemical characteristics by burrow construction. In this work, we experimentally evaluated the hypothesis that crab burrowing can enhance soil oxygenation, causing changes in Spartina densiflora Brongniart below ground tissues from structures adapted to anoxia

to systems adapted for nutrient acquisition. This response, in turn, would enhance plant productivity. Results from field observations show that oxygen availability is higher in zones with high burrow densities. As burrow densities increased, the plant root distribution changed from shallow (associated to low oxygen availability) to deeper and vertically homogeneous, with a positive correlation between burrow density and plant aboveground biomass. Experimental exclusion of crabs shows that they induce changes of root strategies from anoxia toleration to nutrient efficient acquisition, with increasing plant productivity. The invasive success that this plant shows in other parts of the world is likely to be due to their ability to tolerate harsh environmental conditions. Our results

suggest that the morphological Selleck SHP099 plasticity of S. densiflora is also important in their native zone given the characteristics of their specific habitat. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Rationale, aims and objectivesThis article conducts a literature review about the cost-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in ambulatory care.\n\nMethodsRelevant economic evaluations were identified by searching Medline (PubMed) and the National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database. The search strategy focused on literature reviews and primary economic evaluations. Economic evaluations were included, which compared pharmacotherapy for COPD, chronic bronchitis or pulmonary emphysema with an alternative in terms of costs and health outcomes.\n\nResultsThe majority of economic evaluations show that pharmacotherapy for COPD in ambulatory care is cost-effective.

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