Eggimann et al [112] reported of surgical interventions

Eggimann et al. [112] reported of surgical interventions

in 10 cases of primary gut aspergillosis. In all 10 cases, laparotomy was performed due to acute peritonitis and showed transmural necrosis of the small bowel requiring segmental resection. Histology results showed multiple lesions from superficial ulceration to transmural necrosis. Vascular thrombosis with tissue invasion by branched hyphae of Aspergillus spp. was found in all 10 patients. LY294002 supplier Catheters of any kind (e.g. peripheral line, central venous catheter, abdominal catheter, intra-abdominal catheter, bladder catheter) might serve as an entry port for Aspergillus spp. Catheters should be removed (i) if the entry wound seems infected (erythema, induration and cutaneous or subcutaneous necrosis at the point of entry), (ii) if the catheter is suspected to be contaminated or (iii) if the patients are suffering from unresolved infection that does not respond to antibiotics. Central venous catheter infections due to Aspergillus spp. have been reported

by Allo et al. [113]. They investigated nine cases of primary cutaneous Aspergillus infection in immunocompromised patients, three of which required surgical AZD4547 debridement and skin graft transplantation in addition to systemic antifungal treatment. Two of those, however, developed fatal disseminated aspergillosis. In a case reported on a patient who underwent peritoneal dialysis, it remained unclear whether Aspergillus peritonitis originated from pulmonary Aspergillus lesions or if the peritoneal catheter, which grew Aspergillus in culture was the origin of peritonitis. The catheter was removed and antifungal medication started but the outcome was fatal.[114] Kerl et al. [115] published a case report in 2011, interestingly in this case, the occurrence of chest wall aspergillosis at the insertion site of a Broviac catheter developed under reverse isolation with laminar air flow

and high efficiency TCL particulate air filtration. Several surgical debridements were necessary to manage the infection. Overall, Aspergillus infected vascular or peritoneal and intra-abdominal catheters should be removed to treat catheter-associated infections and to prevent systemic infection or peritonitis.[113-119] Additional surgical debridement may be necessary in some cases. Surgical intervention or drainage may also be an option in very rare manifestations of IA. Khan and Perez reported cases of primary renal aspergillosis presenting with uterus colics. In case of obliteration of the urinary tract surgical intervention should be considered.[120, 121] Aspergillus mediastinitis is mostly a complication of surgeries.

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