In order to ensure Yemen׳s commitment, the fisheries act is supposed to make the necessary amendments in the fisheries
governing laws to meet these emerging fisheries policies. It is necessary that the fisheries law be broadly based on the precautionary approach, Gemcitabine cell line particularly in the case of least developed countries such as Yemen where the status of most fish stocks is unknown and funds for research are lacking. During the last two decades, aquaculture development, though stressed in policy, did not make any progress and the lack of aquaculture legislative framework has been one of the major obstacles to aquaculture development. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate these obstacles and make the necessary legislative and regulatory reforms to address these issues. Enforcement of
regulations by the enforcement authorities is weak, which results in fishermen having a low compliance with regulations. Compliance and enforcement tools prescribed by the law include instruments for both artisanal and industrial fisheries. In the artisanal sector, monitoring is restricted to random dockside inspection and routine inspection at landing sites, although inspection is not strictly enforced. On-land enforcement tools include on-land observers and quality observers. The tasks allocated to the on-land observers include reporting of illegal fishing gear, reporting of unlicensed fishing boats, illegal fishing during the closed seasons,
capture of illegal species or sizes, unloading at unofficial landing sites, reporting of illegal means of transporting fish, and reporting of any violations ABT263 to the laws and regulations of the fishery. Compliance and enforcement tools within the industrial fisheries include the requirement of the coastal and industrial boats to take onboard 2–4 observers, the use of Fossariinae Vessel Monitoring System, the real-time reporting of catches at sea, and the unloading of fish should be at specified ports in Yemen. Coastal and industrial boats are required to keep logbooks, in the format specified by the MFW, to record the catch in terms of species and quantity, the coordinates of each of the fishing locations, and the depths and times spent fishing. However, logbooks are not used with the artisanal boats, even though the law entitles the MFW to ask artisanal boats larger than 15 m to keep logbooks to record the specifications of the catch. Enforcement incentives provided for in the law are generally low and lack publicity. The law has specified a reward, 10% of the reported infringement, for any person detected and reported any violations to the laws and regulations of the fishery. However, reporting of violations still occurs infrequently, in part due to the lack of publicity of these rewards and a lack of trust in competent authorities. The penalties are sometimes not severe enough to ensure compliance with and enforcement of regulations.