Moreover, friends�� alcohol use in high school predicted both concurrent binge drinking and future trajectories of binge drinking (Schulenberg et al. 1996). Overall, the frequency of evenings out with friends (unsupervised by adults) was associated with inhibitor DZNeP more AOD use (Bachman et al. 2008; Brown et al. 2001; Patrick and Schulenberg 2010). Of course, a central issue when evaluating the role of peer use as a correlate and predictor of alcohol use is the extent to which friends actually influence an individual or the individual select friends who, like them, already drink. During adolescence and the transition to adulthood, both of these processes typically play a role (e.g., Patrick et al. 2012b). Influence of School and Work The broad domain of education also significantly relates to AOD use during adolescence (Crosnoe 2011).
Studies consistently have found that grades, educational expectations, and school bonding are negatively correlated with AOD use, whereas school disengagement, school failure, school misbehavior, and skipping school are positively correlated with AOD use (Bachman et al. 2008; Bryant et al. 2003; Dever et al. 2012; Patrick and Schulenberg 2010; Pilgrim et al. 2006; Schulenberg et al. 1994). For example, in a longitudinal analysis examining 8th-grade predictors of concurrent and subsequent AOD use, school misbehavior and peer encouragement of misbehavior were positively associated with concurrent substance use and increased substance use over time. Conversely, school bonding, interest, and effort were negatively associated with concurrent and increased substance use, as were academic achievement and parental help with school (Bryant et al.
2003). Positive school attitudes were of particular importance and were especially influential as protective factors against substance use for low-achieving adolescents. The relationship between educational factors and AOD use is bidirectional, and it is clear that AOD use can contribute to educational difficulties. In general, however, it seems that based on MTF study longitudinal data and careful consideration of selection factors, the more common direction of influence is that school difficulties contribute to AOD use during adolescence (Bachman et al. 2008). By the time they leave high school, most adolescents have worked part time during the school year. Although it has long been recognized that hours of work during adolescence are positively related to use of AODs, conclusions about causal connections have remained elusive (Staff et al. 2009). Analysis of MTF study data found that when sociodemographic and Cilengitide educational characteristics are controlled for, the positive relationship between hours of work and AOD use diminishes, suggesting that selection effects exist.