The clinical manifestation of FHL in humans is often linked to vi

The clinical manifestation of FHL in humans is often linked to viral infections [[21, 22]] and the clinical severity and age of disease onset correlate with the degree to which perforin function is impaired [[20, 23-25]]. The number of memory CD8+ T cells generated by infection or vaccination correlates strongly with the degree of protection observed. Thus, effective vaccination strategies aim to increase the number of protective memory CD8+ T cells. Since perforin is a critical cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell effector molecule, perforin deficiency results in immunocompromised

state in the host. However, in some models of infection (i.e. Listeria monocytogenes (LM) infection), immunity can be restored by increasing memory CD8+ T-cell numbers even in the absence of perforin [[26]]. Thus, PKO hosts should theoretically benefit

from vaccination to increase memory Tofacitinib CD8+ T-cell responses. PKO mice fail to clear primary LCMV infection [[9, 11]]. However, in contrast to improved immunity against LM by vaccination [[27]], we showed that vaccination of PKO BALB/c mice with attenuated recombinant LM expressing the dominant LCMV NP118-126 epitope resulted in massive LCMV-specific CD8+ T-cell expansion, dysregulated production CD8+ T-cell-derived IFN-γ, and increased mortality following LCMV challenge [[16]]. Thus, while vaccination generally enhances antimicrobial immunity, it selleck compound can also evoke lethal immunopathology Temozolomide or exacerbate the disease. Several experimental

animal models demonstrated that vaccination to increase pathogen-specific memory CD8+ T cells can provide enhanced resistance against pathogen challenge in immunocompromised hosts. For example, PKO mice and IFN-γ- and TNF-deficient mice vaccinated with attenuated LM were better protected against virulent LM challenge in a CD8+ T-cell-dependent manner [[27-30]]. However, robust memory CD8+ T-cell recall responses to pathogen challenge could also lead to severe immunopathology and mortality. C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with recombinant Vaccinia virus expressing LCMV proteins succumbed to fatal meningitis after intracranial infection with a normally nonlethal dose of LCMV [[31]]. Similarly, we showed that BALB/c-PKO mice that were vaccinated with attenuated LM expressing the dominant LCMV epitope (NP118-126; H-2Ld restricted) succumbed to LCMV infection despite massive expansion of CD8+ T cells [[16]]. In contrast, PKO mice immunized with control attenuated LM survived the LCMV infection [[16]]. In this case, the presence of NP118-specific memory CD8+ T cells in PKO hosts converts a nonlethal viral infection into a devastating disease. However, it is unclear whether the vaccine-induced mortality in PKO mice is a unique consequence of Listeria-based vaccination.

Comments are closed.