0 0 8 0 7 0 8 0 5 1 0 1 2 0 7 0 4 0 2 1 0 2 0 MSN4 Transcriptiona

0 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.5 1.0 1.2 0.7 0.4 0.2 1 0 2 0 MSN4 Transcriptional activator related to Msn2p 1.0 0.8 1.3 2.5 3.2 1.0 1.0 0.7 0.5 0.4 4 0 2 0 YAP1* Transcriptional activator involved in oxidative stress response 1.5 0.9 0.8 1.0 0.7 1.0 1.7 1.0 0.5 0.3 1 2 2 0 HSF1 Heat shock https://www.selleckchem.com/products/qnz-evp4593.html transcription factor 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.5 1.3 1.0 1.6 1.1 0.7 0.4 1 3 2 0 * Genes showing significantly enriched transcription abundance in Y-50316 prior to ethanol challenge (p < 0.01). Genes in bold indicate new reports by this study and the expression fold changes in bold indicate an increase of greater than 1.5-fold (p < 0.01) compared with a wild type control. Numbers of protein binding motifs related to transcription factors Msn4p/Msn2p,


Hsf1p and Pdr1p/Pdr3p for each gene were marked under each transcription Selleckchem PF-3084014 factor Transcription dynamics of heat shock protein genes All 14 examined heat shock protein genes demonstrated normal or enhanced expressions at the earlier stage, such as at 1 or 6 h after ethanol challenge for both strains (Figure 5 and 6). However, most heat shock protein genes in Y-50049 were repressed at 24 and 48 h and only three genes, HSP26, HSP30 and HSP31, remained induced for the parental strain Y-50049. But the expression abundance of these genes was significantly less than that of the ethanol-tolerant strain Y-50316 (Table 3). Y-50316, on the other hand, had 10 genes, HSP12, HSP26, HSP30, HSP31, HSP32, HSP42, HSP78, HSP82, HSP104, and HSP150 showing significantly induced expressions from 24 to 48 h. Among these, HSP26 Inositol monophosphatase 1 displayed the highest expression levels at all time points. Except for HSP40 and HSP90, all other heat shock protein genes selleck chemicals of Y-50316

had distinct increased expression dynamics over time compared with its parental strain Y-50049 (Additional File 2). For example, HSP31 and HSP82 in Y-50316 were highly expressed at each time point. These heat shock proteins were found to be involved in cellular structure-function relationships at multiple locations including nucleus, mitochondrion, cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, membrane, and cell wall (Additional File 3). Figure 6 Quantitative expression of heat shock protein genes. Comparisons of transcription expressions in gene copy numbers (nX107) for heat shock protein genes between ethanol-tolerant strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-50316 and its parental strain NRRL Y-50049 under the ethanol challenge over time. Mean values are presented with error bars of standard deviations. Values at different time points are presented by a specific colored bar as shown in legends for the tolerant Y-50316 and an immediately adjacent open bar on its right for its parental strain Y-50049 of the same time point. Adaptive expressions of trehalose and glucose metabolism genes Although the initial transcription abundance was low, all examined trehalose and glycogen metabolism genes responded positively to the ethanol challenge over time.

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