These observations are consistent with an allosteric response ari

These observations are consistent with an allosteric response arising from changes in protein motion rather than conformation, and suggest ligands that modulate protein dynamics may be effective inhibitors of this enzyme.”
“Background: The sentinel lymph Screening Library node (SLN) technique aims at predicting the absence of regional nodal metastasis and seems promising in the management Of cervical cancer patients. Patients and Methods: Fort)? patients undergoing surgery

for early cervical cancer were submitted to the SLN procedure, using Blue Patente alone in 3, radiocolloid injection alone in 4 and both methods in 33 (82.5%). All patients underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Results: The detection rate was as follows: overall 85%, blue dye alone 66%, radiocolloid alone YH25448 purchase 75%, dual method 87%. Detection was successful in 34 patients, with one false-negative result. No micrometastases were demonstrated during ultrastaging of the sentinels. The detection rate was higher in tumors <2 cm (94.1%)

than in larger tumors (78.2%, p>0.09). Significant negative correlation between lymphatic vascular space invasion (LVSI) and detection rate was found (p<0.001). Conclusion: SLN detection is feasible in early cervical cancer but presence of LVSI and a tumor size >2 cm negatively affect the detection rate and may increase the incidence of false negatives.”
“Objective: To explore the constructs underlying a self-report assessment of multimorbidity.\n\nStudy Design and Setting: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 352 HMO members aged 65 years or more with, at a minimum, diabetes, depression, and osteoarthritis. We assessed self-reported ‘disease burden’ (a severity-adjusted count of conditions) as a function of biopsychosocial factors, two data-based comorbidity indices, and demographic variables.\n\nResults: In multivariate regression, age, ‘compound effects of conditions’ (treatments and symptoms interfering with each other), self-efficacy, financial constraints,

and physical functioning were significantly (p <= 0.05) associated with disease burden. An ICD-9-based morbidity index did not significantly contribute to disease burden, and buy JNJ-26481585 a pharmacy-data-based morbidity index was minimally significant.\n\nConclusion: This measure of self-reported disease burden represents an amalgamation of functional capabilities, social considerations, and medical conditions that are not captured by two administrative data-based measures of morbidity. This suggests that (a) self-reported descriptions of multimorbidity incorporate biopsychosocial constructs that reflect the perceived burden of multi morbidity, (b) a simple count of diagnoses should be supplemented by an assessment of activity limitations imposed by these conditions, and (c) choice of the morbidity measurement instrument should be based on the outcome of interest rather than on the most convenient method of measurement. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


“The fiber-modified adenoviral vector D-24-RGD


“The fiber-modified adenoviral vector D-24-RGD MI-503 nmr (D24RGD) offers vast therapeutic potential. Direct injection of D24RGD has been used to successfully target ovarian tumors in mice. However, systemic toxicity, especially in the liver, profoundly limits the efficacy of direct viral vector delivery. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have the ability to function as a vector for targeted gene therapy because of their preferential engraftment into solid tumors and participation in tumor stroma formation. We show that MSC-guided delivery of D24RGD is specific

and efficient and reduces the overall systemic toxicity in mice to negligible levels compared with D24RGD alone. In our model, we found efficient targeted delivery of MSC-D24RGD to both breast and ovarian cell lines. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining for adenoviral hexon protein confirmed negligible levels of systemic toxicity in mice that were administered

MSC-D24RGD compared with those that were administered D24RGD. These data suggest that delivery of D24RGD through MSC not only increases the targeted delivery efficiency, but also reduces the systemic exposure of the virus, thereby reducing overall systemic toxicity to the host and ultimately Galunisertib in vivo enhancing its value as an anti-tumor therapeutic candidate. Cancer Gene Therapy (2010) 17, 289-297; doi: 10.1038/cgt.2009.67; published online 30 October 2009″
“Polyomavirus BK (BKV) is a widely latent pathogen in man. Although viral reactivation during pregnancy has been demonstrated, and polyomaviruses have been linked to chromosomal abnormalities, a pathogenic role for BKV in fetoplacental disease has not been explored. We performed in situ hybridization studies with BKV probes on cases of villitis of unknown etiology (102), diffuse villitis (25), and spontaneous abortion (22). We found no evidence that BKV plays a role in the pathogenesis of these common fetoplacental disorders.

J. Med. Virol. 83:1031-1033, 2011. (C) 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Several structural components of the type III secretion systems (T3SS) encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1 and SPI-2 are exposed to the host’s immune system prior to/during the infection/invasion process, making them potential vaccine candidates. In this study we A-1210477 Apoptosis inhibitor evaluated whether chickens vaccinated with SPI-2 T3SS components could mount a significant humoral immune response (as measured by serum IgG titres) and whether these antibodies could be transferred to progeny (as measured by egg yolk IgG titres), and whether vaccinates and progeny of vaccinates could be protected against challenge with SE. The results of our studies show that vaccinated chickens do produce high levels of SPI-2 T3SS specific serum IgG that they are able to transfer to their progeny. It was demonstrated that vaccinates and progeny of vaccinates had lower overall countable recovered Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) per bird in most situations.

Guideline standard is radical surgery Alternative possibilities

Guideline standard is radical surgery. Alternative possibilities are still limited. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“For patients with Stage II colon cancer, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical and/or pathological findings Compound Library related to a worse prognosis in this category of patients.\n\nWe retrospectively analyzed the data

of consecutive patients, extracted by an institutional Tumour Registry, admitted to an affiliated University Hospital in Milan (European Institute of Oncology) for adenocarcinoma of the colon (all sites), between 2000 and 2005, and having a final pT3 N0 pathology staging after curative surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy was decided as a result of a medical decision within a multidisciplinary Tumor Board.\n\nData of 137 patients were obtained, with a median follow-up of 77 months (range 6-131). Patients who received chemotherapy were younger than patients who did not. Nine patients out of 137 (6.5 %) died as a consequence of colon cancer recurrence; four of them had received adjuvant chemotherapy. Only histological grade III and mucinous histotype were found to impact on cumulative incidence of colon-related events

(p 0.03 and 0.02, respectively); no impact was found on cumulative incidence of colonic neoplasm recurrence-related deaths (p 0.74 and 0.74, respectively). Number of analyzed LNs (lymph nodes) emerged as a factor possibly affecting the cumulative incidence of colon-related events (p 0.09) as well as the cumulative incidence of colonic neoplasm recurrence-related deaths (p 0.10). The risk of events was inversely proportional selleck compound to Mizoribine cost the number of dissected LNs, even over 20 up to about 25 LNs. Never-smokers exhibited a lower incidence of colon-related events, although the difference was not statistically significant (p 0.09). All other analyzed variables did not show any impact on survival rate, including age, gender, ASA score, BMI, site of colonic

neoplasm, multifocality, perivascular invasion, and use of adjuvant chemotherapy.\n\nHistology grading G3 and mucinous histotype were predictors of worse outcome. Efforts to improve LN evaluation should result in clinically significant improvements in outcome, and also the quality of care for patients with radically resected stage II colon cancer.”
“Objective: To describe how preferences and treatment influence symptoms at end of life and site of death in pediatric cancer. Methods: We included 61 pediatric palliative patients with cancer whose parents previously participated in a study that elicited preferences for aggressive chemotherapy versus supportive care alone and who subsequently died. Main outcomes were severe pain and dyspnea proximal to death and site of death. Results: Choice of aggressive chemotherapy predicted significantly more severe pain (odds ratio [OR] 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-9.6; P.049).

The proper identification based on short and unique genetic seque

The proper identification based on short and unique genetic sequence signatures

demonstrates that this approach is promising and cost-effective for large-scale surveys.”
“Background The child mental health epidemiology literature focuses almost exclusively on reporting the prevalence and predictors of child mental disorders. However, there is growing recognition of positive mental health or mental health competence as an independent outcome that cannot be inferred from the absence of problems, and requires Bcl2 inhibitor epidemiological investigation in its own right. Methods We developed a novel measure of child mental health competence within the framework of the Australian Early Development Index, a three-yearly national census of early child development. Predictors of this outcome were investigated by linking these census data at individual level to detailed background information collected by a large longitudinal cohort study. Results Predictors of competence were consistent with previously described

theoretical and empirical models. Overall, boys were significantly less likely than girls to demonstrate a high level of competence (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.91). Other strong predictors of competence were parent education and a relative absence of maternal psychological distress; these factors also appeared to attenuate the negative effect of family hardship on child competence. Conclusions This measure of mental health

Vactosertib supplier competence shows promise as a population-level indicator with the potential benefit of informing and evaluating evidence-based public health intervention strategies that promote positive mental health.”
“Background Schistosomiasis japonica still remains of public health and economic significance in China, especially in the lake and marshland areas along the Yangtze River Basin, where the control of transmission has proven difficult. In the study, we investigated BEZ235 solubility dmso spatio-temporal variations of S. japonicum infection risk in Anhui Province and assessed the associations of the disease with key environmental factors with the aim of understanding the mechanism of the disease and seeking clues to effective and sustainable schistosomiasis control. Methodology/Principal Findings Infection data of schistosomiasis from annual conventional surveys were obtained at the village level in Anhui Province, China, from 2000 to 2010 and used in combination with environmental data. The spatio-temporal kriging model was used to assess how these environmental factors affected the spatio-temporal pattern of schistosomiasis risk. Our results suggested that seasonal variation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), seasonal variation of land surface temperature at daytime (LSTD), and distance to the Yangtze River were negatively significantly associated with risk of schistosomiasis.

These data present guidance to clinicians and other professionals

These data present guidance to clinicians and other professionals investigating the deficiency of essential trace metals in biological samples (scalp hair and blood) of children with night blindness.”
“The meropenem susceptibility surveillance

study was performed between 2002 and 2006 in Japan. Meropenem resistance against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was nearly constant at about 10% during the period. For all species of the bacteria tested, the MIC90 of meropenem in 2006 was not more than 4-fold higher than that in 2002 and 2004. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The years 2000 through mid-2010 marked a transformational period in understanding of the biosynthesis of marine natural products. During this decade the field emerged from one largely dominated by chemical approaches to understanding biosynthetic pathways to one Sapanisertib incorporating the full force of modern molecular biology and bioinformatics. Fusion of chemical and biological approaches yielded great advances in understanding the genetic and enzymatic basis for marine natural product biosynthesis. Progress was particularly pronounced for marine microbes,

especially actinomycetes and cyanobacteria. During this single decade, both the first complete marine microbial natural product biosynthetic gene cluster sequence was released as well as the first entire genome sequence for a secondary metabolite-rich marinemicrobe. The decade also saw tremendous progress this website in recognizing the key role of marine microbial symbionts of invertebrates in natural product biosynthesis. Application of genetic and enzymatic knowledge led to genetic engineering of novel “unnatural” natural products during this time, as well as opportunities for discovery of novel natural products through genome mining. The current review highlights selected seminal studies from 2000 selleck screening library through to June 2010 that illustrate breakthroughs in understanding of marine natural product biosynthesis

at the genetic, enzymatic, and small-molecule natural product levels. A total of 154 references are cited.”
“The interaction between a common soil yeast, Cryptococcus laurentii, and a slow-growing medicinal plant adapted to low-nutrient soils, Agathosma betulina (Berg.) Pillans, was studied. C. laurentii CAB 578 was isolated from the rhizosphere of wild A. betulina, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) analysis revealed that the yeast was capable of producing polyamines, such as cadaverine and spermine, while growing in vitro in a chemically defined medium. Since the exogenous application of polyamines are known to impact on root growth, these findings supported the results obtained when axenic cultures of A. betulina seedlings were inoculated with C. laurentii CAB 578 and cultivated for 5 months under glasshouse conditions. The presence of the yeast increased root growth by 51%.

(C) 2012 American Institute of Physics [http://dx doi org/10 106

(C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4765102]“
“This experiment investigated the impact of brief training in acceptance versus distraction-based pain management on experimental pain tolerance BAY 73-4506 in vivo in conditions of lower and higher potential threats. One

hundred fifty-one pain-free Chinese adults (93 women, 58 men) randomly assigned to acceptance, distraction or pain education control conditions engaged in a cold pressor test (CPT) after reading validated orienting information designed to prime either the safety of the CPT (lower threat) or symptoms and damaging effects of exposure to extreme cold (higher threat). A 2 (threat level) 3 (training strategy) analysis of covariance, controlling for pre-intervention pain tolerance and education, indicated the acceptance group was more pain tolerant than other training groups. This main effect was qualified by an interaction with threat level: in the lower threat condition, acceptance group participants were more pain tolerant than peers in the distraction or pain education groups while no training group differences were found in the higher threat condition. Supplementary analyses identified catastrophizing as a partial mediator of training group differences in pain tolerance. In summary, findings suggested

acceptance-based coping is superior to distraction as a means of managing experimental pain, particularly when pain sensations are viewed as comparatively low in potential threat.”
“The tetracyclic triterpene content of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) Akt inhibitor growing in Russia was investigated for the first time. Lanosterol, inotodiol, and ergosterol were isolated from the non-phenolic fraction. In addition, trametenolic acid was isolated from fraction III, which was prepared by extraction from diethylether solution with 5% NaOH.”
“Kjellmaniella

crassifolia Miyabe (gagome) is a brown alga. Oral gagome administration (oral gagome) resulted in significant upregulation of IL-10 and IFN gamma production by Peyer’s patch cells. To assess the adjuvant activity of oral gagome, treated mice were subcutaneously HIF-1 cancer injected with ovalbumin (OVA). The production of cytokines from antigen (Ag)-specific T cells in draining lymph nodes (dLN) and their proliferative response were significantly increased as compared with the control group. These enhancements were associated with increased CD44(hi)CD62L(-) activated/memory T cells in dLN as well as upregulation of Ag-specific IgA level in luminal contents. No upregulation of cytokine production by dLN T cells was observed in dectin-1 deficient mice, suggesting that the effect of gagome on cytokine production is largely dependent on the dectin-1 pathway despite its composite constituents.

In conclusion, our data show that MAT II and SAMe are critical mo

In conclusion, our data show that MAT II and SAMe are critical molecular components essential for CD4(+) T-cell survival that are affected by ethanol, leading to enhanced AICD. Furthermore, these studies provide a clinical paradigm for the development of much needed therapy using SAMe supplementation in the treatment

of immune dysfunction induced by alcohol abuse. 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A series of new 2-pyrazoline derivatives has been synthesized by reacting 3-(substituted-phenyl)-1-pyridin-2-yl-propenones using two routes one using thiosemicarbazide and the other by hydrazine hydrate. The chemical structures were HSP inhibitor established by IR, Mass, H-1-NMR, C-13-NMR spectroscopic data, and elemental analysis. The anticonvulsant activity of the synthesized compounds was evaluated by the “maximal electroshock seizure”

(MES) test and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using male albino mice. Compounds 2e, 5-(naphthalene-1-yl)-3-(pyridine-2-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioic acid amide, and 3c, N-ethyl-5-(naphthalene-1-yl)-3-(pyridine-2-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide showed appreciable activity in the MES as well as PTZ test at HSP990 all the evaluated doses.”
“We newly developed lithium methyltriolborate as an air-stable white solid that is convenient to handle. The good performance of this triolborate for metal-catalyzed bond-forming reactions was demonstrated in palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with haloarenes. Cross-coupling reaction of [MeB(OCH2)(3)CCH3]Li with aryl halides occurred in the presence of Pd(OAc)(2)/RuPhos complex in refluxing MeOH/H2O and the absence of bases.”
“Background Caroli disease is a rare congenital disorder characterized by segmental, nonobstructive dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts. The term Caroli syndrome is used for the association of Caroli disease with congenital hepatic fibrosis.\n\nStudy aims To provide an overview of the clinical presentation and imaging AZ 628 supplier features of Caroli disease and syndrome, with an emphasis

on magnetic resonance imaging.\n\nPatients and methods Retrospective analysis of medical records on eight patients in whom a histologic diagnosis of Caroli disease or syndrome had been made.\n\nResults Presenting signs and symptoms were (hepato) splenomegaly, hematemesis and/or melena, cholangitis, jaundice, and recurrent fever. The central dot sign, defined in the literature as a dot or bundle of strong contrast enhancement within dilated intrahepatic ducts, was found in seven cases on various imaging modalities. A ‘dot-like structure’ was found in one case in which only unenhanced studies were available. There was a tendency toward a right hepatic-lobe predominance.\n\nConclusion There is an overlap between the imaging features of Caroli disease and Caroli syndrome.

The therapy kinetics area under the curves (AUCs) predicted from

The therapy kinetics area under the curves (AUCs) predicted from pretherapy data were in good agreement with the measured therapy AUCs. The good correlation between the model estimates and measured data, the accurate prediction of the therapy kinetics, and the good estimates of regional vascular volumes demonstrates the reliability of the model. These findings also indicate that the model can be useful for individual optimization of the amount of activity to be administered with respect to patient dosimetry.”
“In virgin rats, systemic administration of interleukin (IL)-1

beta (i.e. to mimic infection), increases oxytocin secretion and the firing rate of oxytocin neurones in the supraoptic nucleus (SON). However, in late pregnancy, stimulated oxytocin secretion is inhibited by an endogenous opioid mechanism, preserving Fludarabine the expanded neurohypophysial oxytocin stores for parturition and minimising the risk of preterm labour. Central levels of the neuroactive metabolite of progesterone, allopregnanolone, increase during pregnancy and allopregnanolone acting on GABAA receptors on oxytocin neurones enhances inhibitory transmission. In the present study, we tested whether allopregnanolone induces opioid inhibition of the oxytocin system in response

to IL-1 beta in late pregnancy. buy PRIMA-1MET Inhibition of 5a-reductase (an allopregnanolone-synthesising enzyme) with finasteride potentiated IL-1 beta-evoked oxytocin secretion in late pregnant rats, whereas allopregnanolone reduced the oxytocin response in virgin rats. IL-1 beta increased the number of magnocellular neurones in the SON and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) expressing Fos (an indicator of neuronal activation) in virgin but not pregnant rats. In immunoreactive oxytocin neurones in the SON and PVN, finasteride increased IL-1 beta-induced Fos expression in pregnant rats. Conversely, allopregnanolone reduced the number of magnocellular

oxytocin neurones activated by IL-1 beta in virgin rats. Treatment with naloxone (an opioid antagonist) greatly enhanced the oxytocin response to IL-1 beta in pregnancy, and finasteride did not enhance this effect, indicating that allopregnanolone and the endogenous opioid mechanisms do not act independently. Indeed, allopregnanolone induced opioid ERK inhibitor inhibition over oxytocin responses to IL-1 beta in virgin rats. Thus, in late pregnancy, allopregnanolone induces opioid inhibition over magnocellular oxytocin neurones and hence on oxytocin secretion in response to immune challenge. This mechanism will minimise the risk of preterm labour and prevent the depletion of neurohypophysial oxytocin stores, which are required for parturition.”
“Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in old age. Cognitive impairment in AD may be partially due to overall hypometabolism.

For the polyelectrolyte PSS, higher iontophoretic flux was observ

For the polyelectrolyte PSS, higher iontophoretic flux was observed in cathodal selleck chemicals llc iontophoresis compared to anodal iontophoresis. Both electroosmosis and electrophoresis affected iontophoretic fluxes of the macromolecules; the relative contributions of electroosmosis and electrophoresis were a function of molecular size and charge of the macromolecules. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“For self-assembly of the bacterial flagellum, most of the flagellar component proteins

synthesized in the cytoplasm are exported by the flagellar type III export apparatus to the growing, distal end. Flagellar protein export is highly organized and well controlled in every step of the flagellar assembly process. Flagellar-specific chaperones not only facilitate the export of their cognate proteins, as well as prevent their premature aggregation Nutlin-3 in the cytoplasm, but also play a role in fine-tuning flagellar gene expression to be coupled with the flagellar assembly process. FliT is a flagellar-specific chaperone responsible for the export of the. lament-capping protein FliD and for negative control of flagellar gene expression by binding to the FlhDC complex. Here we report the crystal structure of Salmonella FliT at 3.2-angstrom

resolution. The structural and biochemical analyses clearly reveal that the C-terminal segment of FliT regulates its interactions with the FlhDC complex, FliI ATPase, and FliJ (subunits of the export apparatus), and that its conformational change is responsible for the switch in its binding partners during flagellar protein export.”
“Background: The debate over nipple-sparing mastectomy continues to evolve. Over the past several years, it has become more widely accepted, especially in the setting of prophylactic mastectomy, but its role in the treatment of

breast cancer has only recently been reexamined.\n\nMethods: Two indications for the procedure are discussed: prophylactic, for the high-risk patient; and the more controversial topic, therapeutic nipple-sparing mastectomy, for the patient with breast cancer. A review of the literature suggests that certain breast cancers may be amenable to retaining the nipple if they meet specific oncologic criteria: tumor LB-100 size 3 cm or less, at least 2 cm from the nipple, not multicentric, and with clinically negative nodes. Moreover, newer technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging and preoperative mammotome biopsy may make the procedure even safer in this setting. Practical and technical aspects of the procedure are discussed, including patient selection.\n\nResults: The accumulating data from multiple series of nipple-sparing mastectomy show that properly screened patients have a low risk of local cancer recurrence, that recurrences occur rarely in the nipple, and that recurrences in the nipple can be managed by removing the nipple.

40; 95% CI 1 30-1 51) The proportion of chlamydia infections

40; 95% CI 1.30-1.51). The proportion of chlamydia infections

detected increased for all socio-demographic and self-reported sexual behaviour groups both during and after the campaign.\n\nConclusion: The uptake of chlamydia testing rose during the campaign; however, this apparent increase was not maintained once overall trends in testing were taken into account. Nonetheless, once secular and cyclical trends were controlled for, the campaign was associated with an increased positivity linked to increased testing of high risk individuals groups in the target population LY2835219 who were previously less likely to come forward for testing. However, our study indicated that there may have been a disparity in the impact of the campaign on different population groups. The content and delivery of ongoing and future information campaigns aimed at increasing chlamydia screening should be carefully developed so that they are relevant to all sections of the target population.”
“Silicon sensors are used for the tracker

and vertex detectors of all the main current high energy physics experiments because of their unsurpassed performance in terms of granularity, resolution and speed while offering relatively low mass. The anticipated future upgrade of the present Large Hadron Collider (the Super LHC, sLHC) will require detectors with similar performance in terms of speed and low mass, but with increased granularity and a factor of ten more radiation tolerance. The radiation hardening of silicon Selleck SNX-5422 sensors, given the sLHC requirements, is being investigated

from many angles: different silicon materials, different electrode geometries and varying the thickness of the active substrate.\n\nIt has been proposed that possible advantages could be achieved with detectors thinner than the accepted standard of 300 m. The effect of the thickness on the performances of finely segmented silicon sensors after severe hadron irradiation (up to 2 x 10(16) 1 MeV neutron equivalent/cm(2)) is presented. For the first time, the charge collection properties of microstrip detectors made on 200 mu m n-type float zone (FZ) and 150 mu m Selleck PD98059 high resistivity epitaxial silicon substrates are compared with thin (140 mu m) and standard p-type devices.”
“Abird-parasitic fly, Carnus orientalis Maa, 1968, is recorded for the first time from Japan, and it is taxonomically reexamined on the basis of specimens collected in Okinawa Prefecture. Adult flies were found from nestlings of Ryukyu scops owl (Otus elegans Cassin, 1852), which is a new host for C. orientalis. Bionomic remarks regarding C. orientalis are presented, and a key to the world species of Carnus is also provided.”
“Objective-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combined deletion of ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression in macrophages on foam cell formation and atherosclerosis.