was achieved using electrochemical impedan


was achieved using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The discrimination experiments employed 30 haplotype mutation samples and 30 normal target samples. The haplotype mutation samples and normal target samples could www.selleckchem.com/products/pha-848125.html be clearly discriminated, even using samples produced by a five-cycle polymerase chain reaction process. The time and cost of sample preparation for the polymerase chain reaction process in the clinical setting can thus be reduced.”
“Response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) based on five levels was employed to model and optimize four experimental operating conditions of extraction temperature (10-90 degrees C) and time (6-30h), particle size (6-24 mm) and water to solid (W/S, 10-50) ratio, obtaining polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis roots with high yield and antioxidant activity. For each response, a second-order polynomial model with high R-2 values ( bigger than 0.966) was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the most significant (P smaller than 0.05) extraction conditions that affect the yield and antioxidant activity of extracted polysaccharides were the

main effect of extraction temperature and the interaction effect of the particle size and W/S ratio. The optimum conditions to maximize yield (10.80%) and antioxidant activity (84.09%) for polysaccharides extraction from A. officinalis roots were extraction temperature 60.90 degrees C, extraction time 12.01 h, particle size 12.0 mm and W/S ratio of 40.0. The experimental MK 2206 values were found to be in agreement with those predicted, indicating the models suitability for optimizing the polysaccharides extraction conditions. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A global conservation goal is to understand the pathways through which invasive species are introduced into new regions. Botanic gardens are a pathway for the

introduction of invasive non-native plants, but a quantitative assessment of the risks P505-15 mouse they pose has not been performed. I analyzed data on the living collections of over 3000 botanic gardens worldwide to quantify the temporal trend in the representation of non-native species; the relative composition of threatened, ornamental, or invasive non-native plant species; and the frequency with which botanic gardens implement procedures to address invasive species. While almost all of the world’s worst invasive non-native plants occurred in one or more living collections (99%), less than one-quarter of red-listed threatened species were cultivated (23%). Even when cultivated, individual threatened species occurred in few living collections (7.3), while non-native species were on average grown in 6 times as many botanic gardens (44.3).

We show that the disulfide bridges of RTD-1, a member of the thet

We show that the disulfide bridges of RTD-1, a member of the theta-defensin subfamily, could be replaced with noncovalent Watson Crick hydrogen bonds without significantly affecting its biological activities. The work provides a general strategy JNJ-26481585 datasheet for engineering conformationally rigid, cyclic peptides without the need for disulfide-bond reinforcement.”
“(4E,8E,10E)-9-Methyl-4,8,10-sphingatrienine, a core component of marine sphingolipids, was synthesised for the first time using a copper(I)-mediated 1,2-metallate rearrangement of a lithiated glycal

as a key step. It was converted to phalluside-1, a cerebroside isolated from the ascidian Phallusia fumigate. By an analogous route, (4E, 8E)-9-methyl-4,8-sphingadiene was synthesised and converted to Sch II, a cerebroside that induces fruiting body formation in the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune.”
“Background and Purpose: One third of patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention

(PCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction develop a secondary increase in electrocardiographic ST segment (ST peak) during reperfusion. The purpose was to determine the clinical importance of ST peak during primary PCI.\n\nMethods: A total of 363 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction were stratified to no ST peak or ST peak. Final infarct size and ejection fraction (EF) were assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance.\n\nResults: Patients www.selleckchem.com/products/MLN8237.html with ST peak had a larger infarct size (14% vs 10%; P = .003) and lower EF (53% vs 57%; P = .022). Rates of cardiac mortality (8% vs 3%; P = .047) and cardiac events

(cardiac mortality and admission for heart failure; 19% vs 10%; P = .018) were higher among patients with ST peak, but not all-cause mortality (8% vs 5%; P = .46). In a multivariable Cox regression analysis, ST peak remained significantly associated with cardiac events (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.03 [1.08-3.82]).\n\nConclusion: ST peak during primary PCI is related to larger final Selleckchem BEZ235 infarct size, a reduced EF, and adverse cardiac clinical outcome. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A revision of the Cenozoic Ampullinidae and Naticidae from a wide range of localities and stratigraphic units in Patagonia revealed the occurrence there of thirteen, species referable to these families. Ampullinid species described are Tejonia? tapia (Feruglio, 1935); Tejonia arroyoensis n. sp. and Pseudamaura dubia (Petersen, 1946). Naticids are represented by the following valid species: “Natica” entreriana Borchert, 1901; Euspira patagonica (Philippi, 1845); Notocochlis borrelloi (Brunet, 1995); Bulbus subtenuis (Ihering, 1897); Polinices santacruzensis Ihering, 1907; Polinices puntarenasensis Ihering, 1907; “Polinices” ortmanni Ihering, 1907 (nomen dubium); Polinices mina n. sp.; Glossaulax secundum (Rochebrune and Mabille, 1885); and Darwinices claudiae n. gen. n. sp.

At the same time, these chemicals are highly toxic and can be use

At the same time, these chemicals are highly toxic and can be used as nerve agents. Sotrastaurin cost G117H mutant of human Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was found to be capable of hydrolyzing certain ON and protect against their toxicity. However, for therapeutic use, the rate of hydrolysis is too low. Its catalytic power can be improved by rational design, but the structure of the G117H mutant is first required. in this work, we determined, computationally, the three dimensional structure of

the G117H BChE mutant. The structure was then validated by simulating acetylation of acetylthiocholine (ATC). Several plausible conformers of G117H BChE were examined but only the (62,-75) conformer fully reproduced catalytic effect. The (62,-75) conformer is, therefore, suggested as the structure adopted by the G117H BChE mutant. This conformer is shown to explain the loss of esterase activity observed for the G122H Acetylcholinesterase mutant together with its recovery when additional mutations are placed turning the enzyme also into an OP hydrolase. Furthermore, similarity of the structure to the structure of RNase A, which is known to hydrolyze the O-P bond in RNA, grants it further credibility and suggests a mechanism for the OP hydrolysis. proteins 2009; 77:370-377. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Objective. We aimed to pilot a trauma surveillance tool

for use in a primary healthcare emergency centre to provide a risk profile of injury patterns in Elsies River, Cape Town.\n\nMethods. Healthcare workers completed a one-page questionnaire Momelotinib purchase capturing demographic and injury data from trauma patients presenting to the emergency unit of the Elsies River Community Health Centre find more over a period of 10

days.\n\nResults. Trauma cases comprised about one-fifth of the total headcount during the study period. Most injuries took place before midnight. Approximately 47% of the trauma patients were suspected of being under the influence of alcohol with 87% of these cases caused by interpersonal violence; 2896 were males between 19 and 35 years old, suspected of being under the influence of alcohol and presenting with injuries due to violence.\n\nConclusion. Injury surveillance at primary healthcare emergency centres provides an additional perspective on the injury burden compared with population-level mortality statistics, but the quality of data collection is limited by resource constraints. We recommend that the current trauma register be revised to separate trauma and medical headcounts and enable better resource planning at a facility and subdistrict level. Information gathered must be linked to health and safety interventions aimed at reducing the trauma burden within communities.”
“Stacked superconducting tapes are an important element for fabricating large current density, superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs).

54% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0 37%-0 76%) By typology of v

54% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37%-0.76%). By typology of venues where FSWs solicited clients, the prevalence was 1.37% (95% CI, 0.89%-2.11%) in low-tier venues, 0.28% (95% CI, 0.14%-0.58%) inmiddle-tier venues, and 0.07%(95% CI, 0.01%-0.41%) in high-tier venues. The final logistic regression Selleckchem HDAC inhibitor model showed an association of having had HIV infection with working in low-tier venues (adjusted odds ratio 2.73; 95% CI,

1.12-6.67) and coming from Guangxi Province (adjusted odds ratio, 7.89; 95% CI, 1.65-37.64). It can be concluded that FSWs working in low-tier venues (on the streets or public outdoor places) had higher risk of HIV infection than other venues. Such subgroup of FSWs should be efficiently covered by the current HIV/STD surveillance and intervention programs

in China.”
“Background: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common bacterial cause of sore throat. School-age children this website bear the highest burden of GAS pharyngitis. Accurate diagnosis is difficult: the majority of sore throats are viral in origin, culture-based identification of GAS requires 24-48 hours, and up to 15% of children are asymptomatic throat carriers of GAS. The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for detecting GAS pharyngitis and assess its suitability for clinical diagnosis.\n\nMethods: Pharyngeal swabs were collected from children aged 3-18 years (n = 91) and adults (n = 36) located in the Melbourne area who presented with sore throat. Six candidate PCR assays were screened using a panel of reference isolates, and two of these assays, targeting speB and spy1258, were developed into qPCR assays. The qPCR assays were compared to standard culture-based methods for their ability to detect GAS pharyngitis. GAS isolates from culture positive swabs underwent emm-typing.

Clinical data were used to calculate McIsaac scores as an indicator of disease severity.\n\nResults: Twenty-four of the 127 samples (18.9%) were culture-positive for GAS, and all were in children (26%). The speB qPCR had 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared with gold-standard culture, whereas the spy1258 qPCR had 87% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Nine different emm types CB-839 supplier were found, of which emm 89, 3, and 28 were most common. Bacterial load as measured by qPCR correlated with culture load. There were no associations between symptom severity as indicated by McIsaac scores and GAS bacterial load.\n\nConclusions: The speB qPCR displayed high sensitivity and specificity and may be a useful tool for GAS pharyngitis diagnosis and research.”
“Background: To evaluate the diagnostic utility of conventional ultrasonography and real time ultrasound elastography in differentiating degenerating cystic thyroid nodules mimicking malignancy from papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Fifty-eight patients

\n\nFifty-eight patients PD98059 cost underwent complete radiographic staging. Nineteen (33%) had ulcerated primary tumors. Forty-two patients (73%) presented with clinically negative lymph nodes that were positive on sentinel lymph node biopsy. Lymph

node involvement was classified as N1a in 54%, N2a in 19%, N2b in 3%, and N3 in 22% of patients. Among 204 staging examinations in 58 patients, 52 (25%) were initially reported as positive. Three percent of all examinations proved truly positive; 23% were falsely positive. Analyzed per patient, in 37 (64%) of 58 patients, at least one examination was initially reported as positive. However, only 3 patients (5%) had a true-positive and 34 (59%) had at least one false-positive report. The positive

reports of the staging scans generated 45 additional examinations (0.78 per patient).\n\nRadiographic staging in asymptomatic patients with stage III melanoma detects a low number of patients with unsuspected systemic disease. The ratio of falsely to truly positive is approximately 11:1. Radiographic screening should only be considered in patients with high-risk prognostic features or symptoms, or in the context of clinical trials.”
“The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C(9)H(8)Br(3)NO, contains two independent molecules. The conformation of the N-H bond is anti to the 3-methyl substituent in the benzene ring in each molecule. The structure shows both intramolecular N-H center dot center dot center dot Br and intermolecular N-H center dot center dot AZD1480 order center dot O hydrogen bonding, the latter leading to the formation of helical supramolecular chains along the b axis.”
“Purpose: This study compared patients who underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) by high-amplitude left ventricular (LV) pacing with those who underwent CRT by standard LV pacing.\n\nMethods: We included 32 CRT patients with ejection fraction (EF) <= 35%, QRS time >= 120 ms, and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III/IV symptoms of heart failure despite optimal medical treatment. These patients were evaluated clinically and echocardiographically before, three

and six months after CRT. At the 3rd month, the LV pulse amplitude BAY 73-4506 concentration value was set high at 5 volt for 16 patients [high-amplitude Group (HAG)], while for the other 16 patients, it was reduced to at least twice the threshold value at <= 2.5 volt [low-amplitude group (LAG)].\n\nResults: Clinical and echocardiographic response rates of HAG and LAG after CRT were similar in the 3rd and 6th month. In both groups, increase in LVEF and decrease in LV ESV in the 3rd and 6th month were statistically significant compared to those before CRT, and NYHA class and end-diastolic volume (EDV) was significantly reduced in the 6th month compared to those before CRT. However, NHYA class and EDV continued to reduce significantly in HAG from the 3rd to the 6th month (P<0.05), while the decrease in LAG was not significant (P>0.05).

Seven fibre lines had mucilages particularly rich in galactose H

Seven fibre lines had mucilages particularly rich in galactose. High to very high variability was found for 14 traits. Relatively independent characters (form/shape, protein and galactosidase) were see more identified and could be combined by breeding, with a focus on mucilage yield, composition and properties. Main-component analyses of line characters showed a large diversity in linseeds mainly due to their different origin but small variation in Russian fibre lines with brown seeds. (C) 2014 Elsevier

Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Despite the importance of maintaining redox homeostasis for cellular viability, how cells control redox balance globally is poorly understood. Here we provide SHP099 mw new mechanistic insight into how the balance between reduced and oxidized

electron carriers is regulated at the level of gene expression by mapping the regulon of the response regulator ArcA from Escherichia coli, which responds to the quinone/quinol redox couple via its membrane-bound sensor kinase, ArcB. Our genome-wide analysis reveals that ArcA reprograms metabolism under anaerobic conditions such that carbon oxidation pathways that recycle redox carriers via respiration are transcriptionally repressed by ArcA. We propose that this strategy favors use of catabolic pathways that recycle redox carriers via fermentation akin to lactate production in mammalian cells. Unexpectedly, bioinformatic analysis of the sequences bound by ArcA in ChIP-seq revealed

that most ArcA binding sites contain additional direct repeat elements beyond the two required for binding an ArcA dimer. DNase I footprinting assays suggest learn more that non-canonical arrangements of cis-regulatory modules dictate both the length and concentration-sensitive occupancy of DNA sites. We propose that this plasticity in ArcA binding site architecture provides both an efficient means of encoding binding sites for ArcA, sigma(70)-RNAP and perhaps other transcription factors within the same narrow sequence space and an effective mechanism for global control of carbon metabolism to maintain redox homeostasis.”
“We have previously shown that HIV-1 superinfected Zambian seroconverters mount low binding and neutralizing antibody responses to their primary HIV-1 infecting virus, which could increase susceptibility to re-infection. Here, we investigated if antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), a process by which virus-infected cells are killed, was also reduced. Superinfected individuals exhibited low ADCC activity compared to non-superinfected individuals, but similar levels of CMV-reactive binding antibodies, suggesting superinfected individuals are capable of generating and maintaining virus-specific antibodies. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Furthermore, the testretest reliability and responsiveness of the

Furthermore, the testretest reliability and responsiveness of the questionnaire were not evaluated in this study.\n\nOur study addresses the urgent need for a valid and reliable instrument to measure the HRQoL of female patients with endometriosis in mainland China.\n\nThis work was supported by grants to J. Leng from the Key Project for Clinical Faculty Foundation, Ministry of Health, China (2010). None of the authors has any conflict of interest to declare.”
“In this communication

our aim was to study the JK cell growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of ginsenoside Rg6 (GRg6) from steamed notoginseng on human lymphocytoma. The CCK-8 method was used to observe the anti-proliferative effect of GRg6 Curaxin 137 HCl on human lymphocytoma JK cells. RG7440 Flow cytometry was performed to analyze the influence of

GRg6 on cell cycle. The Annexin-V FITC/PI double-staining method was used to detect the ratio of apoptotic cells. JC-1 staining was undertaken to observe the influence of GRg6 on intracellular mitochondrial membrane potential. Finally, western blots were conducted to detect the expression level of apoptosis-related Bax and the Bcl-2 proteins. The results suggested that GRg6 can inhibit the proliferation of human lymphocytoma JK cells. GRg6 blocks an S arrest in the cell cycle. With the increase in GRg6 concentration, the potential in the cell decreased in a dose dependent manner, and Bax protein expression gradually increased, whereas Bcl-2 protein expression gradually decreased. In conclusion, GRg6 can inhibit JK cell proliferation in human lymphocytoma and induce its apoptosis. The mechanism of action may be related to mitochondrial dysfunction and an increase of Bax expression and decrease of Bcl-2 expression Selleck GSK1120212 caused by GRg6.”
“Ubiquitination, the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to target proteins, has emerged as a ubiquitous post-translational modification (PTM) whose function extends far beyond its original role as a tag for

protein degradation identified three decades ago. Although sharing parallel properties with phosphorylation, ubiquitination distinguishes itself in important ways. Nevertheless, the interplay and crosstalk between ubiquitination and phosphorylation events have become a recurrent theme in cell signalling regulation. Understanding how these two major PTMs intersect to regulate signal transduction is an important research question. In this review, we first discuss the involvement of ubiquitination in the regulation of the EGF-mediated ERK signalling pathway via the EGF receptor, highlighting the interplay between ubiquitination and phosphorylation in this cancer-implicated system and addressing open questions. The roles of ubiquitination in pathways crosstalking to EGFR/MAPK signalling will then be discussed.

Thus the identification of factors that lead to VSMC death

Thus the identification of factors that lead to VSMC death

in dialysis will be of prime importance in preventing vascular calcification. (Circulation. 2008; 118: 1748-1757.)”
“PURPOSE. The signaling pathways and transcriptional effectors responsible for directing mammalian lens development provide key regulatory molecules that can inform our understanding of human eye defects. The hedgehog genes encode extracellular signaling proteins responsible for patterning and tissue formation during embryogenesis. BMS-754807 nmr Signal transduction of this pathway is mediated through activation of the transmembrane proteins smoothened and patched, stimulating downstream signaling resulting in the activation or repression of hedgehog target Selleck Thiazovivin genes. Hedgehog signaling is implicated in eye development, and defects in hedgehog signaling components have been shown to result in defects of the retina, iris, and lens.\n\nMETHODS. We assessed the consequences of constitutive hedgehog signaling in the developing mouse lens using Cre-LoxP technology to express the conditional M2 smoothened allele in the embryonic head and lens ectoderm.\n\nRESULTS.

Although initial lens development appeared normal, morphological defects were apparent by E12.5 and became more significant at later stages of embryogenesis. Altered lens morphology correlated with ectopic expression of FoxE3, which encodes a critical gene required for human and mouse lens development. Later, inappropriate expression of the epithelial marker Pax6, and as well as fiber cell markers c-maf and Prox1 also occurred,

indicating a failure of appropriate lens fiber cell differentiation accompanied by altered lens cell proliferation and cell death.\n\nCONCLUSIONS. Our findings demonstrate that the ectopic activation of downstream effectors of the hedgehog signaling pathway in the mouse lens disrupts normal fiber cell differentiation by a mechanism consistent with a sustained epithelial cellular developmental program driven by FoxE3. (Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:3316-3330) DOI: 10.1167/iovs.12-9595″
“Purpose\n\nTo update the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) guideline for antiemetics in oncology.\n\nMethods\n\nA systematic review of the medical literature was completed to inform this update. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Collaboration EGFR inhibition Library, and meeting materials from ASCO and the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer were all searched. Primary outcomes of interest were complete response and rates of any vomiting or nausea.\n\nResults\n\nThirty-seven trials met prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria for this systematic review. Two systematic reviews from the Cochrane Collaboration were identified; one surveyed the pediatric literature. The other compared the relative efficacy of the 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists.\n\nRecommendations\n\nCombined anthracycline and cyclophosphamide regimens were reclassified as highly emetic.

3%) than multiplex PCR, and DFA testing from UTM-RT-collected swa

3%) than multiplex PCR, and DFA testing from UTM-RT-collected swabs was more sensitive than that from CyMol-collected swabs. These data indicate that an alcohol-based transport medium such as CyMol preserves respiratory

virus integrity, rapidly inactivates viruses, and is compatible with PCR-based respiratory diagnostics.”
“Several studies point to prism adaptation as an effective tool for the rehabilitation of hemispatial neglect However, some recent reports failed to show a significant amelioration of neglect ACY-241 mw after prism adaptation as compared to control treatments. This apparent contradiction might reflect important differences in the procedures used for treatment. Here we compare the effects of two treatments (performed for 10 sessions, over 2 weeks) in two groups of patients, based either on a Terminal (TPA) or a Concurrent (CPA) prism adaptation procedure. During TPA only the final part of the pointing movement is visible and prism adaptation relies most strongly on a strategic recalibration of visuomotor

eye-hand coordinates. In contrast, during CPA the second half of the pointing movement is visible, and thus adaptation mainly consists of a realignment of proprioceptive coordinates.\n\nThe present results show that both TPA and Crenolanib Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor CPA treatments induced a greater improvement of neglect as compared to a control treatment of pointing without prisms. However, neglect amelioration was higher for patients treated with TPA than for those treated with CPA. At the same time, the TPA treatment induced a stronger deviation of eye movements toward the left, neglected, field as compared to the CPA treatment. Interestingly, in TPA patients the visuomotor and oculomotor effects of the treatment were directly related to the patients’ ability to compensate for the optical deviation induced by prism during pointing (i.e., Error reduction effect).\n\nIn summary, prism adaptation seems particularly effective for the recovery of visuo-spatial neglect when

conducted with a procedure stressing a correction of visuomotor eye-hand coordinates, i.e., with a TPA procedure. The present observations may help to better understand the mechanisms underlying prism-induced recovery this website from neglect and the procedural basis for some of the contradictory results obtained when using this rehabilitative strategy. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The presence of DNA in the cytoplasm is a danger signal that triggers immune and inflammatory responses. Cytosolic DNA binds to and activates cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS), which produces the second messenger cGAMP. cGAMP binds to the adaptor protein STING and activates a signaling cascade that leads to the production of type I interferons and other cytokines. Here, we report the crystal structures of human cGAS in its apo form, representing its autoinhibited conformation as well as in its cGAMP- and sulfate-bound forms.

-Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 92: 383-392 The use of the cholin

-Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 92: 383-392.\n\nThe use of the cholinergic system is widespread in the animal kingdom. It controls different processes, including reproduction and neural transmission. However, its evolutionary history is not yet well understood. For instance, the role played by the cholinergic system in the nervous system of basal bilaterian taxa, where the first signs of architectural complexity appear, is still unknown. Here, we describe the structure of the cholinergic system

during the development and regeneration of the acoel flatworm Symsagittifera roscoffensis, using acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity as a marker. In this species, AchE activity is observed at all developmental stages, including selleck in the early embryos. The juvenile and adult patterns reveal the presence of a complex nervous system that includes three pairs of longitudinal neurite bundles, which are connected to an anterior centralized mass of neurons and neural processes formed by two pairs of connectives and four commissures. The power of the technique also allows the detection

of newly born neurons as they are incorporated QNZ into the growing nervous system (during regeneration).”
“Conventional epidermal cysts are generally small, slow-growing, non-tender, dome-shaped lesions. An epidermal cyst is usually asymptomatic until it is infected or enlarged to the extent that it causes damage to adjacent anatomical structures. However, AMN-107 few cases of giant epidermal cysts in the neck have been reported. The present case reports a giant epidermal cyst in the posterior neck, which grew to an extremely large size for bigger than 40 years without inflammation or rupture, and was misdiagnosed as a large soft tissue neoplasm. The patient exhibited depression and developed social anxiety due to the negative cosmetic consequences of the large mass. The patient underwent excision of the mass. At the follow-up

examination two years postoperatively, there were no local recurrence and the psychiatric symptoms of the patient were completely resolved. To the best of our knowledge, a giant epidermal cyst growing for bigger than 40 years has not previously been reported.”
“To determine whether alternative electron flow (AEF) can replace the photosynthetic electron flow in cyanobacteria, we used an open O-2-electrode system to monitor O-2-exchange over a long period. In air-grown Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (S. 6803 (WT)), the quantum yield of PSII, Y(II), held even after photosynthesis was suppressed by CO2 shortage. The S. 6803 mutant, deficient in flavodiiron (FLV) proteins 1 and 3, showed the same phenotype as S. 6803(WT). In contrast, Y(II) decreased in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 (S. 7942). These results suggest that AEF functioned as the Y(II) in S. 6803 and replaced the photosynthetic electron flux. In contrast, the activity of AEF in S. 7942 was lower.