Compared with other screening techniques such as transcriptomics or proteomics, SEREX offers a crucial advantage that subtle changes in the protein expressions can be detected through immunological reactions [32, 33]. Several authors have already applied SEREX to glioma, and some Selinexor datasheet antigens, including glioma-expressed antigen 2 (GLEA2) , PHD finger protein 3 (PHF3) [7, 34], and SRY-box 6 (SOX6)  have been identified. It should be noted that we found autologous antibodies against SH3GL1 to be a low-grade glioma-specific marker with similar experimental systems to others. Our
unique approach was the quantitative comparison of the levels of serum antibodies using the ELISA, while the approach of others Akt inhibitor was qualitative analysis. The application of ELISA in the validation step could lead to the discovery of a low-grade glioma-specific high titer of the Entospletinib in vitro autoantibody and the decrease in high-grade gliomas. Although some candidates of glioma biomarkers have been identified by various screening methods [6–8, 34–37], no serum marker for early diagnosis has been found yet. Therefore,
it is quite valuable to find a novel serum biomarker for its early diagnosis, prediction of the prognosis in each patient, and development of a new molecular target. Indeed, The results of an overlap peptide array and ELISA using deletion mutants of SH3GL1 showed that 12 amino acids in the C-terminal portion, FPLSYVEVLVPL, were indicated as a major epitope site. By using a synthetic peptide corresponding to the epitope as an antigen, a more accurate screening for the patients
with low-grade gliomas and a specific peptide vaccine therapy would be achieved in the future. Author details 1Departments of Neurological Surgery, Chiba University, Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan. 2Genetics and Biochemistry, Chiba University, Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan. 3Diagnostic Pathology, Chiba University, Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Rho Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan. 4Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Life Science, Nagoya Women’s University, 3-40, Shioji-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8610, Japan. References 1. Ohgaki H, Kleihues P: Epidemiology and etiology of gliomas. Acta Neuropathol 2005, 109:93–108.PubMedCrossRef 2. Anderson E, Grant R, Lewis SC, Whittle IR: Randomized Phase III controlled trials of therapy in malignant glioma: where are we after 40 years? Br J Neurosurg 2008, 22:339–349.PubMedCrossRef 3. van den Bent MJ, Afra D, de Witte O, Ben Hassel M, Schraub S, Hoang-Xuan K, Malmstrom PO, Collette L, Pierart M, Mirimanoff R, Karim AB: Long-term efficacy of early versus delayed radiotherapy for low-grade astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults: the EORTC 22845 randomised trial. Lancet 2005, 366:985–990.PubMedCrossRef 4. Sanai N, Berger MS: Glioma extent of resection and its impact on patient outcome.