In contrast, heterogeneity in the cost that individuals pay to pu

In contrast, heterogeneity in the cost that individuals pay to punish for selfish behavior allows altruistic behavior to be maintained more easily. Fewer punishers are needed to deter selfish behavior, and the individuals that punish will mostly belong to the class that pays a

lower cost to do so. This effect is amplified when individuals that pay a lower cost for punishing inflict a higher punishment.\n\nThe two population models differ when individuals that pay a low cost for punishing also inflict a lower punishment. In this situation, altruistic behavior becomes harder to maintain in an infinite and well-mixed population. However, this effect does not occur when the population is spatially structured. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Influenza virus-like particles (VLPs) are noninfectious and the assembly of influenza QNZ VLPs depends on the interactions of M1 proteins and/or other viral surface proteins, such as HA, NA, and M2, with the cellular lipid membranes. In this study AMN-107 we propose that M2 protein can

be used as a molecular fabricator without disrupting the assembly of VLPs and while retaining the native structures of HA and NA envelope protein oligomers on the particle surfaces. First, we demonstrated that influenza VLPs can be fabricated by the M2 fusion of enhanced green fluorescent protein for imaging single virus entering A549 cells. Second, we engineered two molecular adjuvants (flagellin and profilin) fused to M2 protein to generate molecular adjuvanted VLPs. Theses molecular adjuvanted

VLPs had stimulatory functions, including increasing TNF-alpha production and promoting the maturation of dendritic cells. Immunization of mice with molecular adjuvanted VLPs also enhanced the response of the neutralizing antibodies against homologous and heterologous H5N1 viruses. The results can provide useful information for imaging single viruses and designing novel vaccines against influenza virus infection. (C) 2011 SB273005 purchase Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Malaria is the commonest cause of childhood morbidity in Western Kenya with varied heamatological consequences. The t study sought to elucidate the haemotological changes in children infected with malaria and their impact on improved diagnosis and therapy of childhood malaria.\n\nMethods: Haematological parameters in 961 children, including 523 malaria-infected and 438 non-malaria infected, living in Kisumu West District, an area of malaria holoendemic transmission in Western Kenya were evaluated.\n\nResults: The following parameters were significantly lower in malaria-infected children; platelets, lymphocytes, eosinophils, red blood cell count and haemoglobin (Hb), while absolute monocyte and neutrophil counts, and mean platelet volume (MPV) were higher in comparison to non-malaria infected children.

“Midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) and spinal cord dorsal

“Midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) and spinal cord dorsal horn are major action sites of opioid analgesics in the pain pathway. Our previous study has shown that opioid antagonists activate MORS196A-CSTA (a mutant of mu-opioid receptor) as full agonists in vitro cell models and naloxone showed antinociceptive effects after the expression of MORS196A-CSTA in the spinal cord in mice. The purpose of this study is to investigate the site-directed antinociceptive effects of naloxone in mice injected 3-deazaneplanocin A inhibitor with dsAAV-MORS196A-CSTA-EGFP at spinal cord or at periaqueductal gray. MORS196A-CSTA-EGFP was administered to ICR mice

using dsAAV as vector. We measured MORS196A-CSTA-EGFP expression by detecting the EGFP visualization with a fluorescence microscope. The antinociceptive effect of naloxone was determined by tail-flick test and hot plate test. Drug rewarding effect was evaluated by the conditioned place preference test. Naloxone (10 mg/kg, s.c.) elicited both supraspinal and spinal antinociceptive responses in mice injected with the virus at PAG while only spinal antinociceptive response was observed in mice injected with virus at dorsal horn region. Chronic naloxone treatment

did not induce physical dependence or rewarding effect in mice injected with MORS196A-CSTA-EGFP in spinal cord or PAG. These data suggest that the observed naloxone-induced antinociceptive response is the consequence of the local expression of MORS196A-CSTA at specific GDC-0994 sites of pain pathway. Injection of such MOR mutant and the systemic administration of naloxone can be a new strategy in the management of chronic pain without the various side effects associated with the use of morphine. Synapse, 2012. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Objectives: The effects of Okada

Purifying Therapy (OPT), a form of subtle energy (biofield) therapy that originated in Japan, were investigated. Electroencephalograms and the Profile of Mood States scores were measured using a crossover design during OPT and placebo sessions.\n\nParticipants: Nineteen (19) healthy Japanese adults (mean age +/- standard deviation: 40.8 +/- 11.2 years; 10 females) with no previous experience of biofield therapy participated in this study.\n\nMethods: Each session P505-15 lasted 15 minutes. A single-blind, randomized design with a protocol consisting of regular cycles with eyes open followed by eyes closed was used. The power spectral value was calculated in theta (4.0-7.9 Hz), alpha (8.0-12.9 Hz), and beta (13.0-29.9 Hz) frequency ranges.\n\nResults: The power spectral value of the a band at F-p1, F-p2, F-7, F-z, F-8, C-3, C-z, C-4, and P-z increased significantly in the OPT session compared with the placebo session. Mood state was improved after both sessions, and no significant difference was found between the two sessions.

We compared priority areas for the conservation of freshwater fis

We compared priority areas for the conservation of freshwater fish in the Daly River basin (northern Australia). Our study demonstrates that the effect of grain size selleckchem of species distribution data was more important than planning unit size on conservation planning performance, with an increase in commission errors up to 80% and conservation uncertainty over 90% when coarse data were used. This

was more pronounced for rare than common species, where the mismatch between coarse representations of biodiversity patterns and the smaller areas of actual occupancy of species was more evident. Special attention should be paid to the high risk of misallocation of limited budgets when planning in heterogeneous or disturbed environments, where biodiversity is patchily distributed, or when planning for conservation of rare species. (C) 2012 Elsevier

Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The capability of native bacterial strains isolated from Lolium perenne rhizosphere to behave as plant 4-Hydroxytamoxifen ic50 growth promoting bacteria and /or biocontrol agents was investigated. One strain (BNM 0357) over 13 isolates from the root tips of L perenne resulted proved to be nitrogenase positive (ARA test) and an IAA producer. Conventional tests and the API 20E diagnostic kit indicated that BNM 0357 behaves to the Enterobacteriaceae family and to the Enterobacter genus. Molecular identification by 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that BNM 0357 had the highest similarity to Enterobacter ludwigii (EN-119). Isolate BNM 0357 had the selleck chemical capability to solubilize calcium triphosphate and to antagonize Fusarium solani mycelial growth and spore germination. Strain BNM 0357 also showed the ability to improve the development of the

root system of L perenne. This study disclosed features of E. ludwigii BNM 0357 that deserve further studies aimed at confirming its putative importance as a PGPR. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different methods, including the Seager orchidometer (SO) and ultrasonography (US), for assessing testicular volume of smaller testes (testes volume less than 18 mL). Moreover, the equations used for the calculations-the Hansen formula (length [L] x width [W](2) x 0.52, equation A), the prolate ellipsoid formula (L x W x height [H] X 0.52, equation 6), and the Lambert equation (L x W x H x 0.71, equation C)-were also examined and compared with the gold standard testicular volume obtained by water displacement (Archimedes principle). In this study, 30 testes from 15 men, mean age 75.3 (+/- 8.3) years, were included. They all had advanced prostate cancer and were admitted for orchiectomy.

Toxicity effect results show that sediment in the Wujin’gang Rive

Toxicity effect results show that sediment in the Wujin’gang River basin threatens sediment-dwelling organisms. The harmful effect was mainly caused by heavy metals especially Cd, Cr, Ni,

and Cu. Sediment dredging is an effective way to control pollution from internal rivers especially for the pollution of TN and heavy metals in the Wujin’gang River basin.”
“The quasi-static and fatigue performance of carbon and E-glass fibre reinforced tapered laminates was experimentally investigated. Utilising local strain measurements and digital photographs the load levels for delamination initiation were identified. In addition, the fatigue cycles for onset of delamination and growth to a predefined length, which defined the final failure criterion, were accurately evaluated. The data generated served as validation of a predictive methodology 3-MA order for onset of delamination and subsequent growth. The predictive methodology, which was based on a fracture mechanics approach, utilised the mixed mode fatigue delamination behaviour of the materials and finite element analysis of the laminates for evaluation of the strain energy release rate. Satisfactory prediction of the fatigue performance was obtained and the effect of fibre bridging, occurred MLN4924 mw during the test, on the fatigue life was demonstrated. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

Children’s physical activity (PA) levels remain low, and schools are being asked to assume a leadership role in PA promotion. Research suggests outdoor recess contributes to children’s overall PA levels. However, similar research is not available for VX-680 nmr indoor recess, which occurs frequently due to a variety of factors. The purpose of this study was to describe PA levels and intensity during indoor recess using PA dance videos.

METHODS Fifty-four children (27 girls) wore accelerometers for 5days during indoor recess. Factorial analyses of variance were conducted to examine the differences in PA between sexes and across grades. RESULTS Participants averaged 17.66 (SD=2.82) minutes in indoor recess. On average, 22.22% (SD=12.72) was spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and 45.70% (SD=11.29) of time was spent in low-intensity physical activity (LPA) totaling 67.92% (SD=16.54) of total recess time. Boys accumulated a higher percentage of MVPA and total PA compared to girls. CONCLUSIONS Students engaged in PA 68% of indoor recess time, equaling almost 12minutes of PA during recess. Results suggest PA dance videos are 1 effective method for increasing elementary children’s PA during indoor recess as an alternative to sedentary activities.”
“The purposes of this study were to investigate the potential roles of miR-34c in regulating blood-tumor barrier (BTB) functions and its possible molecular mechanisms.

In the case of interdomain motion, the interactions between the i

In the case of interdomain motion, the interactions between the ion and NMR-observable nuclei are modulated in direction and magnitude mainly by a combination of overall and interdomain motions. The effects on observable parameters such as paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) and pseudocontact shift (PCS) can, in principle, be used to characterize AZD6738 motion. These parameters are frequently used for the purpose of structural refinements. However, their use

to probe actual domain motions is less common and is lacking a proper theoretical treatment from a motional perspective. In this work, a suitable spin Hamiltonian is incorporated in a two body diffusion model to produce the time correlation function for the nuclear spin-paramagnetic ion interactions. Simulated observables for nuclei in different positions with respect to the paramagnetic ion are produced. Based on these simulations, it demonstrated that both the PRE and the PCS can be very sensitive probes of domain motion. Results for different nuclei within the protein sense different aspects of the motions. Some are more Lapatinib sensitive to the amplitude of the internal motion, others are more sensitive to overall diffusion rates, allowing separation of these contributions. Experimentally, the interaction strength can also be tuned

by substitution of different paramagnetic ions or by varying magnetic field strength (in the case of lanthanides) to allow the use of more detailed diffusion models without reducing the reliability of data fitting.”
“We describe the epidemiology and risk factors for death in an outbreak of pandemic influenza on a troop ship Mortality and descriptive data for military personnel on His Majesty

s New Zealand Transport troop ship Tahiti in July 1918 were analyzed along with archival Danusertib nmr information Mortality risk was increased among persons 25-34 years of age Accommodations in cabins rather than sleeping in hammocks in other areas were also associated with increased mortality risk (rate ratio 4 28 95% confidence interval 2 69-6 81) Assignment to a particular military unit the field artillery (probably housed in cabins) also made a significant difference (adjusted odds ratio in logistic regression 3 04 95% confidence interval 1 59-5 82) There were no significant differences by assigned rurality (rural residence) or socioeconomic status Results suggest that the virulent nature of the 1918 influenza strain, a crowded environment and inadequate isolation measures contributed to the high influenza mortality rate onboard this ship”
“The kidneys account for about 10% of the whole body oxygen consumption, whereas only 0.5% of the total body mass. It is known that intrarenal hypoxia is present in several diseases associated with development of kidney disease, including diabetes, and when renal blood flow is unaffected.

(c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Polym Sci , Part A: Polym <

(c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Temsirolimus solubility dmso Chem. 2014, 52, 1560-1569″
“Background: Screening and monitoring for

chronic kidney disease (CKD) could lead to earlier interventions that improve clinical outcomes.\n\nPurpose: To summarize evidence about the benefits and harms of screening for and monitoring and treatment of CKD stages 1 to 3 in adults.\n\nData Sources: MEDLINE (1985 through November 2011), reference lists, and expert suggestions.\n\nStudy Selection: English-language, randomized, controlled trials that evaluated screening for or monitoring or treatment of CKD and that reported clinical outcomes.\n\nData Extraction: Two reviewers assessed study characteristics and rated quality and strength of evidence.\n\nData Synthesis: No trials evaluated screening or monitoring, and 110 evaluated treatments. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (relative risk, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.49 to 0.88]) and angiotensin II-receptor blockers (relative risk, 0.77 [CI, 0.66 to 0.90]) reduced end-stage renal disease versus placebo, primarily in patients with diabetes who have macroalbuminuria. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors reduced mortality versus placebo (relative risk, 0.79 [CI, 0.66 to 0.96])

in patients with microalbuminuria and cardiovascular disease or high-risk diabetes. Statins and beta-blockers reduced mortality and cardiovascular events versus placebo or control in patients with impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate and either hyperlipidemia P5091 cell line or congestive heart failure, respectively. Risks for mortality, end-stage renal disease, or other clinical outcomes did not significantly differ between strict and usual blood pressure control. The strength of evidence was rated high for angiotensin II-receptor blockers and statins, moderate for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors

and Sapanisertib beta-blockers, and low for strict blood pressure control.\n\nLimitations: Evidence about outcomes was sometimes scant and derived from post hoc analyses of subgroups of patients enrolled in trials. Few trials reported or systematically collected information about adverse events. Selective reporting and publication bias were possible.\n\nConclusion: The role of CKD screening or monitoring in improving clinical outcomes is uncertain. Evidence for CKD treatment benefit is strongest for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II-receptor blockers, and in patients with albuminuria combined with diabetes or cardiovascular disease.”
“PURPOSE. Overloading of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can cause ER stress and activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the cell. The authors tested whether transgene overexpression in the mouse lens would activate the UPR.\n\nMETHODS. Transgenic mice expressing proteins that either enter the ER secretory pathway or are synthesized in cytosol were selected.

Methods: We identified 39 men who had AUS placement A retros

\n\nMethods: We identified 39 men who had AUS placement. A retrospective chart review was conducted. Validated questionnaires, including the International Consultation on Incontinence GDC-0973 datasheet Questionnaire-Short

Form (ICIQ-SF), Post-Operative Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I), Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-Short Form (IIQ-SF), and Urogenital Distress Index (UDI-SF), were used to measure patient-reported outcome. Global satisfaction was also assessed.\n\nResults: At chart review, 34 of 39 questionnaires were assessed for QOL, satisfaction and surgical outcome. Follow-up ranged from 7 to 60 months (median = 24 months). Surgical revisions were required in 6 (17.6%) patients due to infection (1), erosion (1), combined infection and erosion (1), device failure (1) and second cuff placement (2). Quality of life was assessed using the IIQ-SF

and UDI-SF, with mean scores of 15.4 and 24.8, respectively; these scores indicated a low negative impact on QOL. The ICIQ-SF mean score was 8.2, well below the worst possible score. The number of men using more than 1 pad per day dropped from 27 preoperatively to 10 postoperatively. Most patients (31/34) described their urinary condition as better, 2 had no change and 1 was worse. Most patients (31/34, 91.2%) would be willing to undergo the procedure again, 2 were undecided, and 1 would not. Similarly, 28 patients (82.4%) would recommend the procedure to a friend, 3 respondents would “with reservation,” 1 respondent was undecided, and 2 would not recommend the AUS placement.\n\nConclusion: Treatment of urinary incontinence with the AUS has CUDC-907 clinical trial a positive effect on QOL with high patient satisfaction and reasonably low complication rates.”
“Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop the BKM120 chemical structure Japanese version of the Postpartum Bonding

Questionnaire (PBQ) to gather data on Japanese mothers for comparison with other cultures and to examine the scale structure of the PBQ among Japanese mothers. Methods: We administered the PBQ to a cross-section of 244 mothers 4 weeks after delivery and again 2 weeks later to 199 mothers as a retest to examine reliability. We used exploratory factor analysis to evaluate the factor structure of the PBQ. Correlations with the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS), the Maternal Attachment Inventory (MAI), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and sociodemographic variables were calculated for validation. Results: The 14-item version of the PBQ extracted by exploratory analysis consisted of four factors: ‘impaired bonding’, ‘rejection and anger’, ‘anxiety about care’, and ‘lack of affection’. We found significant correlations of the total scores of the PBQ and the 14-item version of the PBQ positively with the MIBS and negatively with the MA!. Moderate significant correlations with total scores were also found with the EPDS.

Then, His-tagged truncated HA protein was expressed in Escherichi

Then, His-tagged truncated HA protein was expressed in Escherichia selleck coli BL21 (DE3) under 1 mM IPTG induction. The protein expression was optimized under a time-course induction study and further purified using Ni-NTA agarose under

reducing condition. Migration size of protein was detected at 15 kDa by Western blot using anti-His tag monoclonal antibody and demonstrated no discrepancy compared to its calculated molecular weight.”
“Bismuth oxide may be a promising battery material due to the high gravimetric (690 mAh g(-1)) and volumetric capacities (6280 mAh cm(-3)). However, this intrinsic merit has been compromised by insufficient Li-storage performance due to poor conductivity and structural integrity. Herein, we engineer a heterostructure composed of bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) and bismuth sulphide (Bi2S3) through sulfurization of Bi2O3 nanosheets. Such a hierarchical Bi2O3-Bi2S3 nanostructure can be employed as efficient electrode material for Li storage, due to the high surface Liproxstatin-1 cell line areas, rich porosity, and unique heterogeneous phase. The electrochemical results show that the heterostructure exhibits a high Coulombic

efficiency (83.7%), stable capacity delivery (433 mAhg(-1) after 100 cycles at 600 mAg(-1)) and remarkable rate capability (295 mAhg(-1) at 6 A g(-1)), notably outperforming reported bismuth based materials. Such superb performance indicates that constructing heterostructure could be a promising strategy towards high-performance electrodes for

rechargeable batteries.”
“A new, low-band-gap alternating copolymer consisting of terthiophene and isoindigo has been designed and synthesized. Solar cells based on this polymer and PC71BM show a power conversion efficiency of 6.3%, which is a record for polymer solar cells based on a polymer with an optical band gap below 1.5 eV. This work demonstrates the great potential of isoindigo moieties as electron-deficient units for building donor-acceptor-type polymers for high-performance polymer solar cells.”
“Objectives. This is a multicenter, collaborative study to accumulate cases of small cell carcinoma of the uterine Elafibranor cervix (SmCC), to clarify its clinical and clinicopathologic features and prognosis, and to obtain findings to establish future individualized treatment.\n\nMethods. At medical centers participating in the Kansai Clinical Oncology Group/Intergroup, patients diagnosed with SmCC between 1997 and 2007 were enrolled. Clinicopathologic features and prognosis were retrospectively evaluated in patients with SmCC diagnosed at a central pathologic review.\n\nResults. A total of 71 patients were registered at 25 medical centers in Japan. Of these, 52 patients (73%) were diagnosed with SmCC based on a pathological review. These 52 patients diagnosed with SmCC were analyzed. The median follow-up period was 57 months. The 4-year progression-free survival (PFS) was: IB1, 59%; 182, 68%; IIB, 13%; and IIIB, 17%.

The results support the interpretation that an adenosinergic-chol

The results support the interpretation that an adenosinergic-cholinergic interaction within the PRF comprises one neurochemical mechanism underlying the wakefulness stimulus for breathing.”
“Therapy with bone marrow-derived cells has been used in ischemic patients with reported success. The aim of this study was BTK inhibitor to determine the therapeutic efficacy of fresh and frozen human umbilical cord blood cells (hUCB) in Wistar rats submitted to permanent occlusion of the left coronary artery. Three hours after myocardial infarction, 2 x 10(7) hUCB cells or vehicle were administered by intramyocardial injection. The animals were divided into five groups: control

(N = 10), sham operated (N = 10), infarcted that received vehicle (N = 9), infarcted treated with cryopreserved LY3023414 order hUCB (N = 7), and infarcted treated with fresh hUCB (N = 5). Cardiac function was evaluated by electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiogram (ECHO) before cell therapy, and by ECG, ECHO, cardiopulmonary

test, and left ventricular pressure measurements 3 weeks later. After 3 weeks, both groups treated with hUCB still had Q wave present in L1, (a) over cap QRS >90 degrees and reduced shortening fraction (less than 50%). In addition, cardiac indexes of left ventricular contractility and relaxation were 5484 +/- 875 and -4032 +/- 643 mmHg (cryopreserved hUCB) and 4585 +/- 955 and -2862 +/- 590 mmHg (fresh hUCB), respectively. 17-AAG These values were not statistically different from those of saline-treated animals. Cardiopulmonary exercise test profile was typical of infarcted hearts; exercise time was about 14 min and maximal VO(2) was 24.77 +/- 5.00 These data show that hUCB therapy did not improve the cardiac function of infarcted animals or prevent cardiac remodeling.”
“Dynamic interactions of cells with their environment regulate multiple aspects of tissue morphogenesis

and function. Integrins are the major class of cell surface receptors that recognize and bind extracellular matrix proteins, resulting in the engagement and organization of the cytoskeleton as well as activation of signalling pathways to regulate cell behaviour and morphogenetic processes. The ternary complex of integrin-linked kinase (ILK), PINCH, and parvin (IPP complex), which was identified more than a decade ago, interacts with the cytoplasmic tail of beta integrins and couples them to the actin cytoskeleton. In addition, ILK has been shown to act as a serine/threonine kinase and to directly activate several signalling pathways downstream of integrins. However, the kinase activity of ILK and the precise functions of the IPP complex have remained elusive and controversial. This review focuses on the recent advances made towards understanding the specialized roles this complex and its individual components have acquired during evolution.

Such ‘genome editing’ is now established in human cells and a num

Such ‘genome editing’ is now established in human cells and a number of model organisms, thus opening the door to a range of new experimental GSK2118436 concentration and therapeutic possibilities.”
“Thyroid nodules are commonly encountered during routine medical care. The main problem established by a discovery of a thyroid nodule is to discriminate between a benign and malignant lesion. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is the most widely used and cost-effective preoperative test for

initial evaluation of a thyroid nodule. While the overall accuracy of FNA for classical papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) approaches 100%, it has limited accuracy with follicular lesions. Patients with a cytological report

of indeterminate or follicular lesions are referred to surgery for a more accurate diagnosis. A more acute molecular-based test for thyroid nodules is needed not only to improve treatment decisions, but also to potentially reduce the long-term health costs. Several studies have looked into biologic markers that could be used as an adjuvant PF-6463922 mw to distinguish the benign from malignant nodules. This review will focus on those biomarkers that are potentially useful in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions commonly classified as indeterminate. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Radioresistance is one of the major barriers to improve the survival rate of breast cancer patients. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is usually overexpressed in highly invasive and metastatic breast cancer,

BI 2536 which may indicate an association with breast cancer radioresistance. The function role of COX-2 was investigated by using a radioresistant breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231/RR10 and its parental cell line MDA-MB-231 cells before or after COX-2 was silenced by a specific small hairpin RNA (shRNA). The cell proliferation, migration, invasion, colony formation, and apoptosis were measured by CCK-8, scratch-wound, transwell, clone formation assay, and flow cytometry. Protein and mRNA expression were analyzed by Western blot and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. COX-2 is upregulated in MDA-MB-231/RR10 cells compared with in MDA-MB-231 cells, and silencing of COX-2 expression by shRNA in MDA-MB-231/RR10 cells decreases the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, but increases the proapoptotic protein BAK, leading to the increased apoptosis following treatment with gamma-irradiation in comparison with those in control cells.