, 2006). It is interesting to speculate that epigenetic factors may both control the expression and contribute to the maintenance of clusters in pathogens of animals and plants. The presence of virulence genes within clusters has prompted comparisons with the prokaryotic pathogenicity island phenomenon (Dean, 2007). Whether the molecular basis of fungal virulence will be as drastically altered by the discovery
of pathogenicity clusters remains to be seen. What is clear is HDAC inhibitors cancer that gene expression analysis of multiple pathogens during infection has contributed considerably to our understanding of the role and evolutionary origins of these intriguing genomic attributes. Clearly, there is much to be gained from comparative analysis of fungal transcriptomes during the initiation of infection. In addition to the pitfalls introduced by experimental
design considerations, the overriding obstruction encountered during our comparative analysis was the impenetrable nature of the published genesets, genome databases and comparative genomics tools. Although the advent of postgenomic fungal analyses has prompted investment in supportive bioinformatic tools, a one-stop comparative genome database that relates directly to gene product function, homologues in other fungi, genome location, spot positions on microarrays and representation in other datasets does not exist learn more for any fungal pathogen (although we are currently developing such tools for A. fumigatus). Analyses such as ours, therefore, take many months to perform, constitute publishable studies in themselves and remain relatively primitive with respect to the accuracy of homologue predictions. Such shortcomings must be addressed if the full benefit of comparative studies is ever to be realized within a practicable timescale for a single researcher. Rapamycin This requires appropriately formatted datasets and databases that interconnect data of diverse species origins, a goal that must now become a priority if resources and generated experimental data
are to be maximally exploited. “
“The ability to survive the bactericidal action of serum is advantageous to extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli that gain access to the bloodstream. Evasion of the innate defences present in serum, including complement and antimicrobial peptides, involves multiple factors. Serum resistance mechanisms utilized by E. coli include the production of protective extracellular polysaccharide capsules and expression of factors that inhibit or interfere with the complement cascade. Recent studies have also highlighted the importance of structural integrity of the cell envelope in serum survival. These survival strategies are outlined in this review with particular attention to novel findings and recent insights into well-established resistance mechanisms.