An immunohistochemical

staining technique was used to det

An immunohistochemical

staining technique was used to detect the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9, and -13, membrane type (MT)1-MMP, estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PR) in the main tumor and hyperostotic portions of the studied samples.\n\nIn the non-hyperostosis group, expression of MMP-13, MT1-MMP, and ER was significantly less than in the main tumor portion of hyperostotic meningiomas, while there was no difference in the expression of MMP-2 and -9 and PR in the main tumor between the two check details groups. In the hyperostosis group, the immunoreactivity of MMP-2 in the hyperostotic portion revealed a higher pattern of expression than the main tumor (p < 0.002). The expression of MMP-9, MT1-MMP, click here ER, and PR had relatively positive immunoreactivity in the main tumor portion (P < 0.05).\n\nIncreased expression of MMP-13 and MT1-MMP in the tumor portion of hyperostosis of meningiomas might contribute to the initiation of osteolysis. Activated MMP-2 in hyperostotic lesions may change the physiological metabolism of the skull bone, thus playing an

important role in hyperostosis formation.”
“We report on the phase separation in Au-Ge system leading to the formation of lobe-lobe (bi-lobed) Au-Ge nanostructures under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions (approximate to 3 x 10(-10) mbar) on clean Si(100) surfaces. For this study, approximate to 2.0 nm thick Au samples were grown on the substrate surface by molecular beam epitaxy. Thermal annealing was carried out inside the UHV chamber at temperature approximate to 500 degrees C and following this, nearly square shaped AuxSi(1-x) nano structures of average length approximate to 48 nm were formed. A approximate to 2 nm Ge film was further deposited on the above surface while the substrate was kept at a temperature of approximate to 500 degrees C. Well ordered Au-Ge nanostructures where Au and Ge residing side by side (lobe-lobe structures) were formed. In our systematic studies, we show that, gold-silicide

nanoalloy formation at the substrate (Si) surface is necessary for forming phase separated Au-Ge bibbed nanostructures. These results show that the Au-Ge bonding is unstable in nature. Electron microscopy (TEM, STEM-EDS, SEM) studies were carried out to determine the structure of Au-Ge nano AZD4547 ic50 systems. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements show gold inter-diffusion into substrate while it is absent for Ge. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. []“
“In this communication, we present novel nanofilled polymer composites prepared using a poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix and amyloid fibers. Amyloid fibers are made from protein sources’ and share many of the same material properties as spider silk, but exist at significantly smaller length scales with diameters of 5-10 nm.

Analyses using logistic regression models confirmed the gene-gene

Analyses using logistic regression models confirmed the gene-gene interactions.\n\nConclusions. JNK-IN-8 The results suggest that the SNPs from the T2D-related genes may contribute to the risk of DN in T2D independently and/or in an interactive manner in Taiwanese T2D patients.”
“Study design: Clinical measurements. Longitudinal.\n\nPurpose: To translate and cross-culturally adapt the original patient-rated wrist evaluation (PRWE) into a Korean version (K-PRWE), and to measure the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the K-PRWE for the evaluation

of distal radius fractures (DRFs).\n\nMethods: K-PRWE was developed by forward and backward translations of the PRWE and resolution of cultural discrepancies. Sixty-three DRF patients that underwent open reduction and volar plate fixation completed the K-PRWE at 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. Grip strength, wrist range of motion, VAS for wrist pain and the Korean version of DASH were performed at 3 months postoperatively. MAPK Inhibitor Library high throughput Reliability was measured by determining test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) and internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient). Criterion and construct validity testing was performed using Spearman’s correlation test. Responsiveness

was evaluated using effect size (ES) and standardized response mean (SRM).\n\nResults: Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and the intraclass correlation coefficient of the K-PRWE were 0.94 and 0.96, respectively, AZD6244 manufacturer which indicated that the internal consistency of the questionnaire items was sound and reliable. The correlation coefficient between K-PRWE and K-DASH scores was 0.74 and between K-PRWE and VAS scores was 0.69. Responsiveness was good with an ES of 0.84 and an SRM of 0.89.\n\nConclusions:

The Korean version of the PRWE was found to be reliable, valid, and responsive to evaluate the pain and disability associated with distal radius fractures. (c) 2013 Hanley & Belfus, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose of review Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common and impactful disease, typically managed with supportive care. There is considerable interest in the role of adjunctive therapies, particularly ondansetron and probiotics in improving AGE outcomes. The purpose of this review is to present the latest evidence regarding the use of these agents in children with AGE in developed countries. Recent findings Single-dose oral ondansetron is effective and safe in reducing hospital admissions and the use of intravenous rehydration in children with AGE in emergency-department-based trials. Ondansetron use has increased significantly; however, ‘real-world’ studies of effectiveness have documented less impressive clinical impacts. Similarly, probiotic consumption is growing rapidly. Although several strains appear to reduce the duration of diarrhea in hospitalized children, current data are insufficient to support the routine use of probiotics in outpatient pediatric AGE.

Pivotal to the synthetic strategy is the synthesis of a C-7 bromo

Pivotal to the synthetic strategy is the synthesis of a C-7 bromomethyl substituted derivative of the ring-fused dihydrothiazolo 2-pyridone pilicide scaffold. From this versatile and reactive intermediate various heteroatom-linked substituents could be introduced on the scaffold including amines, ethers, amides and sulfonamides. In addition, carbon-carbon bonds could be introduced to the sp(3)-hybridized bromomethyl substituted scaffold by Suzuki-Miyaura cross couplings. Evaluation of the 24 C-7 substituted compounds in whole-bacterial assays provided important structure-activity data and resulted in the identification

of a number of new pilicides with activity as good or better than those developed previously. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“We investigate submicron ferromagnetic PdNi thin-film

strips CH5424802 solubility dmso intended as contact electrodes for carbon nanotube-based spintronic devices. The magnetic anisotropy and micromagnetic structure are measured as function of temperature. Ruboxistaurin research buy Contrary to the expectation from shape anisotropy, magnetic hysteresis measurements of Pd0.3Ni0.7 on arrays containing strips of various width point towards a magnetically easy axis in the sample plane, but transversal to the strip direction. Anisotropic magnetoresistance measured on individual Pd0.3Ni0.7 contact strips and magnetic force microscopy images substantiate that conclusion. (C) 2013 American Institute of Physics. []“
“The aim of this study was to determine whether ghrelin was present in the internal contents of eggs. Ghrelin ill the DNA Damage inhibitor internal contents of

fertilized eggs incubated for 0 to 5 days was measured by a time-resolved fluoro-immunoassay. Ghrelin was identified in both yolk and albumen of the fresh fertilized eggs before incubation with a higher concentration in the yolk than albumen. The concentration in the whole fertilized egg internal contents (mixture of yolk, albumen and embryo) did not show significant changes during 5 days of incubation. These results Suggest that ghrelin is contained in the internal contents of fertilized eggs. which may affect the functions of embryonic cells during early stage of development in chickens.”
“AimsThis study aimed to assess patients’ baseline characteristics and provider factors influencing the continuation of medication for 12months in patients who were newly diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). MethodsThis study was conducted in patients with newly diagnosed lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/BPH (age 40) who received either one or a combination of the two pharmacological classes of drugs (alpha-blockers or 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors) from January 2008 to January 2010. Patient demographics and clinical data were assessed from the electronic patient records and telephone surveys.

Abiotic factors that facilitate the synchronization and interacti

Abiotic factors that facilitate the synchronization and interaction of vector and amplification host populations favor epidemic amplification and transmission. In Florida, epidemics of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus,

SLEV) have been preceded by major freezes one or two winters before the onset of human cases. Here, we analyze the relationship between severe winter freezes and epidemic SLEV transmission in peninsular Florida and show that there is a significant relationship between the transmission of SLEV and these severe freezes. We propose that by killing cold-sensitive understory vegetation in the mid-peninsular region of Florida, freezes enhance the reproductive success of ground-feeding avian amplification hosts, Selleck Veliparib especially mourning doves and common grackles. Volasertib Cell Cycle inhibitor In conjunction with other appropriate environmental signals, increased avian reproductive success may enhance SLEV and West Nile (WN) virus amplification and result in SLE and WN epidemics during years when all of the biological cycles are properly synchronized. The knowledge that winter freezes in Florida may enhance

the amplification and epidemic transmission of SLE and WN viruses facilitates arboviral tracking and prediction of human risk of SLE and WN infection during the transmission season.”
“Since leadership is an essential part of the oral Selleck AZ 628 health professions, oral health educators can play an essential role in establishing a culture of leadership and in mentoring students to prepare them for future leadership roles within the profession. However, leadership training for oral health professionals is a relatively new concept and is frequently not found within dental and dental hygiene curricula. The purpose of this article is to propose several models for leadership training that are specific to the oral health professions. The authors hope that providing an overview of leadership programs

in academic dental institutions will encourage all U.S. and Canadian dental schools to begin developing a culture that promotes leadership development.”
“Ozone (O3) has been viewed as a novel treatment for different diseases in these years and oxidative stress and apoptosis play a key role in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases including renal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). In the present study, we investigated the role of ozone oxidative preconditioning (OzoneOP) in attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis in a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury model using rat kidney cells. We induced H/R injury in kidney cells treated with or without OzoneOP. Oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined, as well as some apoptotic proteins.

“Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a stem cell tumor chara

“Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a stem cell tumor characterized by dysplastic features and ineffective hematopoiesis in the early phase and leukemic progression in the late phase. Speculating that differences in the expression of genes and microRNA (miRNA) in control and MDS-derived erythroid progenitors may cause ineffective erythropoiesis, we sorted common megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors (MEPs) in bone marrow cells from three

lower-risk MDS patients, and compared expression levels of genes and miRNA with those from controls. In apoptosis-related pathways, the expression of some pro-apoptotic genes, such as cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector A, caspase 5, and Fas ligand, was elevated in MDS-derived MEPs, while those of anti-apoptotic CD40 and tumor necrosis factor were lower. this website In hematopoiesis-regulating pathways, RUNX1 and ETV6 genes showed reduced selleck compound expression. Expression profiling revealed that three and 35 miRNAs were significantly up- and down-regulated in MDS-derived MEPs.

MIR9 exhibited robust expression in MEPs and CD71+GlyA+ erythroid cells derived from one of the three patients. Interestingly, overexpression of MIR9 inhibited the accumulation of hemoglobin in UT-7/GM cells. Some of these alterations in gene and miRNA expression may contribute to the pathogenesis of ineffective hematopoiesis in lower-risk MDS and provide molecular markers for sub-classification and making a prognosis.”
“The multitude of cells constituting organisms are fragile and easily damaged day by day. Therefore, maintenance

of tissue morphology and function is fundamental for multicellular organisms to attain long life. For proper maintenance of tissue integrity, organisms must have mechanisms that detect the loss of tissue mass, activate the de novo production of cells, and organize those cells into functional tissues. However, these processes are only poorly understood. Here we give an overview of adult and juvenile tissue Fer-1 in vivo regeneration models in small fish species, such as zebrafish and medaka, and highlight recent advances at the molecular level. From these advances, we have come to realize that the epidermal and mesenchymal parts of the regenerating fish fin-that is, the wound epidermis and blastema, respectively-comprise heterogeneous populations of cells with different molecular identities that can be termed “compartments.” These compartments and their mutual interactions are thought to play important roles in promoting the proper progression of tissue regeneration. We further describe the current understanding of these compartments and discuss the possible approaches to affording a better understanding of their roles and interactions during regeneration.


was achieved using electrochemical impedan


was achieved using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The discrimination experiments employed 30 haplotype mutation samples and 30 normal target samples. The haplotype mutation samples and normal target samples could be clearly discriminated, even using samples produced by a five-cycle polymerase chain reaction process. The time and cost of sample preparation for the polymerase chain reaction process in the clinical setting can thus be reduced.”
“Response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) based on five levels was employed to model and optimize four experimental operating conditions of extraction temperature (10-90 degrees C) and time (6-30h), particle size (6-24 mm) and water to solid (W/S, 10-50) ratio, obtaining polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis roots with high yield and antioxidant activity. For each response, a second-order polynomial model with high R-2 values ( bigger than 0.966) was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the most significant (P smaller than 0.05) extraction conditions that affect the yield and antioxidant activity of extracted polysaccharides were the

main effect of extraction temperature and the interaction effect of the particle size and W/S ratio. The optimum conditions to maximize yield (10.80%) and antioxidant activity (84.09%) for polysaccharides extraction from A. officinalis roots were extraction temperature 60.90 degrees C, extraction time 12.01 h, particle size 12.0 mm and W/S ratio of 40.0. The experimental MK 2206 values were found to be in agreement with those predicted, indicating the models suitability for optimizing the polysaccharides extraction conditions. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A global conservation goal is to understand the pathways through which invasive species are introduced into new regions. Botanic gardens are a pathway for the

introduction of invasive non-native plants, but a quantitative assessment of the risks P505-15 mouse they pose has not been performed. I analyzed data on the living collections of over 3000 botanic gardens worldwide to quantify the temporal trend in the representation of non-native species; the relative composition of threatened, ornamental, or invasive non-native plant species; and the frequency with which botanic gardens implement procedures to address invasive species. While almost all of the world’s worst invasive non-native plants occurred in one or more living collections (99%), less than one-quarter of red-listed threatened species were cultivated (23%). Even when cultivated, individual threatened species occurred in few living collections (7.3), while non-native species were on average grown in 6 times as many botanic gardens (44.3).

We show that the disulfide bridges of RTD-1, a member of the thet

We show that the disulfide bridges of RTD-1, a member of the theta-defensin subfamily, could be replaced with noncovalent Watson Crick hydrogen bonds without significantly affecting its biological activities. The work provides a general strategy JNJ-26481585 datasheet for engineering conformationally rigid, cyclic peptides without the need for disulfide-bond reinforcement.”
“(4E,8E,10E)-9-Methyl-4,8,10-sphingatrienine, a core component of marine sphingolipids, was synthesised for the first time using a copper(I)-mediated 1,2-metallate rearrangement of a lithiated glycal

as a key step. It was converted to phalluside-1, a cerebroside isolated from the ascidian Phallusia fumigate. By an analogous route, (4E, 8E)-9-methyl-4,8-sphingadiene was synthesised and converted to Sch II, a cerebroside that induces fruiting body formation in the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune.”
“Background and Purpose: One third of patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention

(PCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction develop a secondary increase in electrocardiographic ST segment (ST peak) during reperfusion. The purpose was to determine the clinical importance of ST peak during primary PCI.\n\nMethods: A total of 363 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction were stratified to no ST peak or ST peak. Final infarct size and ejection fraction (EF) were assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance.\n\nResults: Patients with ST peak had a larger infarct size (14% vs 10%; P = .003) and lower EF (53% vs 57%; P = .022). Rates of cardiac mortality (8% vs 3%; P = .047) and cardiac events

(cardiac mortality and admission for heart failure; 19% vs 10%; P = .018) were higher among patients with ST peak, but not all-cause mortality (8% vs 5%; P = .46). In a multivariable Cox regression analysis, ST peak remained significantly associated with cardiac events (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.03 [1.08-3.82]).\n\nConclusion: ST peak during primary PCI is related to larger final Selleckchem BEZ235 infarct size, a reduced EF, and adverse cardiac clinical outcome. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A revision of the Cenozoic Ampullinidae and Naticidae from a wide range of localities and stratigraphic units in Patagonia revealed the occurrence there of thirteen, species referable to these families. Ampullinid species described are Tejonia? tapia (Feruglio, 1935); Tejonia arroyoensis n. sp. and Pseudamaura dubia (Petersen, 1946). Naticids are represented by the following valid species: “Natica” entreriana Borchert, 1901; Euspira patagonica (Philippi, 1845); Notocochlis borrelloi (Brunet, 1995); Bulbus subtenuis (Ihering, 1897); Polinices santacruzensis Ihering, 1907; Polinices puntarenasensis Ihering, 1907; “Polinices” ortmanni Ihering, 1907 (nomen dubium); Polinices mina n. sp.; Glossaulax secundum (Rochebrune and Mabille, 1885); and Darwinices claudiae n. gen. n. sp.

At the same time, these chemicals are highly toxic and can be use

At the same time, these chemicals are highly toxic and can be used as nerve agents. Sotrastaurin cost G117H mutant of human Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was found to be capable of hydrolyzing certain ON and protect against their toxicity. However, for therapeutic use, the rate of hydrolysis is too low. Its catalytic power can be improved by rational design, but the structure of the G117H mutant is first required. in this work, we determined, computationally, the three dimensional structure of

the G117H BChE mutant. The structure was then validated by simulating acetylation of acetylthiocholine (ATC). Several plausible conformers of G117H BChE were examined but only the (62,-75) conformer fully reproduced catalytic effect. The (62,-75) conformer is, therefore, suggested as the structure adopted by the G117H BChE mutant. This conformer is shown to explain the loss of esterase activity observed for the G122H Acetylcholinesterase mutant together with its recovery when additional mutations are placed turning the enzyme also into an OP hydrolase. Furthermore, similarity of the structure to the structure of RNase A, which is known to hydrolyze the O-P bond in RNA, grants it further credibility and suggests a mechanism for the OP hydrolysis. proteins 2009; 77:370-377. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Objective. We aimed to pilot a trauma surveillance tool

for use in a primary healthcare emergency centre to provide a risk profile of injury patterns in Elsies River, Cape Town.\n\nMethods. Healthcare workers completed a one-page questionnaire Momelotinib purchase capturing demographic and injury data from trauma patients presenting to the emergency unit of the Elsies River Community Health Centre find more over a period of 10

days.\n\nResults. Trauma cases comprised about one-fifth of the total headcount during the study period. Most injuries took place before midnight. Approximately 47% of the trauma patients were suspected of being under the influence of alcohol with 87% of these cases caused by interpersonal violence; 2896 were males between 19 and 35 years old, suspected of being under the influence of alcohol and presenting with injuries due to violence.\n\nConclusion. Injury surveillance at primary healthcare emergency centres provides an additional perspective on the injury burden compared with population-level mortality statistics, but the quality of data collection is limited by resource constraints. We recommend that the current trauma register be revised to separate trauma and medical headcounts and enable better resource planning at a facility and subdistrict level. Information gathered must be linked to health and safety interventions aimed at reducing the trauma burden within communities.”
“Stacked superconducting tapes are an important element for fabricating large current density, superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs).

54% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0 37%-0 76%) By typology of v

54% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37%-0.76%). By typology of venues where FSWs solicited clients, the prevalence was 1.37% (95% CI, 0.89%-2.11%) in low-tier venues, 0.28% (95% CI, 0.14%-0.58%) inmiddle-tier venues, and 0.07%(95% CI, 0.01%-0.41%) in high-tier venues. The final logistic regression Selleckchem HDAC inhibitor model showed an association of having had HIV infection with working in low-tier venues (adjusted odds ratio 2.73; 95% CI,

1.12-6.67) and coming from Guangxi Province (adjusted odds ratio, 7.89; 95% CI, 1.65-37.64). It can be concluded that FSWs working in low-tier venues (on the streets or public outdoor places) had higher risk of HIV infection than other venues. Such subgroup of FSWs should be efficiently covered by the current HIV/STD surveillance and intervention programs

in China.”
“Background: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common bacterial cause of sore throat. School-age children this website bear the highest burden of GAS pharyngitis. Accurate diagnosis is difficult: the majority of sore throats are viral in origin, culture-based identification of GAS requires 24-48 hours, and up to 15% of children are asymptomatic throat carriers of GAS. The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for detecting GAS pharyngitis and assess its suitability for clinical diagnosis.\n\nMethods: Pharyngeal swabs were collected from children aged 3-18 years (n = 91) and adults (n = 36) located in the Melbourne area who presented with sore throat. Six candidate PCR assays were screened using a panel of reference isolates, and two of these assays, targeting speB and spy1258, were developed into qPCR assays. The qPCR assays were compared to standard culture-based methods for their ability to detect GAS pharyngitis. GAS isolates from culture positive swabs underwent emm-typing.

Clinical data were used to calculate McIsaac scores as an indicator of disease severity.\n\nResults: Twenty-four of the 127 samples (18.9%) were culture-positive for GAS, and all were in children (26%). The speB qPCR had 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared with gold-standard culture, whereas the spy1258 qPCR had 87% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Nine different emm types CB-839 supplier were found, of which emm 89, 3, and 28 were most common. Bacterial load as measured by qPCR correlated with culture load. There were no associations between symptom severity as indicated by McIsaac scores and GAS bacterial load.\n\nConclusions: The speB qPCR displayed high sensitivity and specificity and may be a useful tool for GAS pharyngitis diagnosis and research.”
“Background: To evaluate the diagnostic utility of conventional ultrasonography and real time ultrasound elastography in differentiating degenerating cystic thyroid nodules mimicking malignancy from papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Fifty-eight patients

\n\nFifty-eight patients PD98059 cost underwent complete radiographic staging. Nineteen (33%) had ulcerated primary tumors. Forty-two patients (73%) presented with clinically negative lymph nodes that were positive on sentinel lymph node biopsy. Lymph

node involvement was classified as N1a in 54%, N2a in 19%, N2b in 3%, and N3 in 22% of patients. Among 204 staging examinations in 58 patients, 52 (25%) were initially reported as positive. Three percent of all examinations proved truly positive; 23% were falsely positive. Analyzed per patient, in 37 (64%) of 58 patients, at least one examination was initially reported as positive. However, only 3 patients (5%) had a true-positive and 34 (59%) had at least one false-positive report. The positive

reports of the staging scans generated 45 additional examinations (0.78 per patient).\n\nRadiographic staging in asymptomatic patients with stage III melanoma detects a low number of patients with unsuspected systemic disease. The ratio of falsely to truly positive is approximately 11:1. Radiographic screening should only be considered in patients with high-risk prognostic features or symptoms, or in the context of clinical trials.”
“The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C(9)H(8)Br(3)NO, contains two independent molecules. The conformation of the N-H bond is anti to the 3-methyl substituent in the benzene ring in each molecule. The structure shows both intramolecular N-H center dot center dot center dot Br and intermolecular N-H center dot center dot AZD1480 order center dot O hydrogen bonding, the latter leading to the formation of helical supramolecular chains along the b axis.”
“Purpose: This study compared patients who underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) by high-amplitude left ventricular (LV) pacing with those who underwent CRT by standard LV pacing.\n\nMethods: We included 32 CRT patients with ejection fraction (EF) <= 35%, QRS time >= 120 ms, and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III/IV symptoms of heart failure despite optimal medical treatment. These patients were evaluated clinically and echocardiographically before, three

and six months after CRT. At the 3rd month, the LV pulse amplitude BAY 73-4506 concentration value was set high at 5 volt for 16 patients [high-amplitude Group (HAG)], while for the other 16 patients, it was reduced to at least twice the threshold value at <= 2.5 volt [low-amplitude group (LAG)].\n\nResults: Clinical and echocardiographic response rates of HAG and LAG after CRT were similar in the 3rd and 6th month. In both groups, increase in LVEF and decrease in LV ESV in the 3rd and 6th month were statistically significant compared to those before CRT, and NYHA class and end-diastolic volume (EDV) was significantly reduced in the 6th month compared to those before CRT. However, NHYA class and EDV continued to reduce significantly in HAG from the 3rd to the 6th month (P<0.05), while the decrease in LAG was not significant (P>0.05).