Lawson and colleagues reported that based on 3 years of data captured by the Quarantine Activity and Reporting System (QARS), vaccine-preventable and tropical diseases are not major causes of death in international travelers Vemurafenib ic50 arriving in the United States. Because malaria is not a communicable disease spread person-to-person, reports of malaria are not requested by CDC Quarantine Stations. Only deaths that occurred during travel (on a conveyance or at a US port of entry) are requested. Thus, QARS did not capture 12 malaria deaths associated with international travel
reported by the US National Malaria Surveillance System during that same time period. While QARS is capable of collecting travel-related illnesses or deaths, it would not be an effective surveillance system for travel-associated mortality due to malaria. The cause of death for travelers who died during travel or upon returning from travel might be captured on the US Standard Certificate of Death. However, only the travel-associated data recorded on the death certificate relate to fatal travel-related injury. As a result, data on returning travelers who
died as a result of travel-related illness will not be captured systematically by the current version of the US death certificate for inclusion in Gefitinib research buy US vital statistics data. The risks related to travel may not even be considered in assigning cause of death, especially if the signs and symptoms of disease were not overtly suggestive of
a specific travel-related illness, such as malaria or rickettsia, whose symptoms may be shared with many other less exotic maladies. While travel-related information is obtained from ill patients who are able to provide it, the value Cediranib (AZD2171) of a travel history collected by a physician is often limited to its use in diagnosis and treatment. Travel histories collected in a clinical setting for treatment are often not collected at all or are incomplete, which can limit a systematic collection of epidemiologic data related to severe travel-related illnesses. Furthermore, if the patient dies during hospitalization or while seeking treatment, an autopsy may not necessarily be performed, and thus the true cause of death remains a mystery. Autopsy rates in the United States have been steadily declining since the 1970s, with 50% of autopsies now performed on persons whose death was related to an external cause, such as assault, suicide, and accidental poisoning. If a returning traveler (who truly had severe malaria) presented to an emergency department 2 weeks after returning from travel, a diagnosis of renal failure might be made based on creatinine levels.