Lawson and colleagues reported that based on 3 years of data capt

Lawson and colleagues reported that based on 3 years of data captured by the Quarantine Activity and Reporting System (QARS), vaccine-preventable and tropical diseases are not major causes of death in international travelers Vemurafenib ic50 arriving in the United States.[4] Because malaria is not a communicable disease spread person-to-person, reports of malaria are not requested by CDC Quarantine Stations. Only deaths that occurred during travel (on a conveyance or at a US port of entry) are requested. Thus, QARS did not capture 12 malaria deaths associated with international travel

reported by the US National Malaria Surveillance System during that same time period.[2] While QARS is capable of collecting travel-related illnesses or deaths, it would not be an effective surveillance system for travel-associated mortality due to malaria. The cause of death for travelers who died during travel or upon returning from travel might be captured on the US Standard Certificate of Death.[8] However, only the travel-associated data recorded on the death certificate relate to fatal travel-related injury. As a result, data on returning travelers who

died as a result of travel-related illness will not be captured systematically by the current version of the US death certificate for inclusion in Gefitinib research buy US vital statistics data. The risks related to travel may not even be considered in assigning cause of death, especially if the signs and symptoms of disease were not overtly suggestive of

a specific travel-related illness, such as malaria or rickettsia, whose symptoms may be shared with many other less exotic maladies. While travel-related information is obtained from ill patients who are able to provide it, the value Cediranib (AZD2171) of a travel history collected by a physician is often limited to its use in diagnosis and treatment. Travel histories collected in a clinical setting for treatment are often not collected at all or are incomplete,[9] which can limit a systematic collection of epidemiologic data related to severe travel-related illnesses. Furthermore, if the patient dies during hospitalization or while seeking treatment, an autopsy may not necessarily be performed, and thus the true cause of death remains a mystery. Autopsy rates in the United States have been steadily declining since the 1970s, with 50% of autopsies now performed on persons whose death was related to an external cause, such as assault, suicide, and accidental poisoning.[10] If a returning traveler (who truly had severe malaria) presented to an emergency department 2 weeks after returning from travel, a diagnosis of renal failure might be made based on creatinine levels.

parasitica belongs to the class of SAHH with an enzymatic charact

parasitica belongs to the class of SAHH with an enzymatic characteristics typical of Michaelis–Menten equation (Fig. 1). We further showed that disruption of sahh gene resulted in a significantly increased intracellular accumulation of SAH in the mutants (Fig. 5b), providing evidence that sahh gene indeed is solely responsible for conversion of SAH to ADO and HCY in vivo. It has been reported that SAHH inhibition results in decreased apical dominance, altered leaf and flower symmetry, flower whorl malformations, and reduced fertility in tobacco plants, and a molecular feature accompanying these changes is the hypomethylation

of the genome DNA (Tanaka et al., 1997; Fulneček et al., 2011). As shown in this work, deletion of sahh resulted in slower growth rate, fewer aerial hyphae, loss of orange pigment, absence of asexual fruiting bodies, and conidia in C. parasitica (Fig. 2). High-performance liquid chromatography Opaganib analysis revealed that levels

of several small-molecule metabolites were substantially lower in mutants than in the parental strain CP80 (Fig. 5a and b). Identification of these small molecules may help to establish whether a change in the intracellular SAH/SAM ratio in the Δsahh mutant would affect other aspects of cellular metabolism of the chestnut blight fungus. It has been proposed that changing in concentration ratio of intracellular SAH/SAM is a mechanism to regulate SAM-dependent methyltransfer reactions and genomic DNA methylation reactions in the cell (Kloor & Osswald, Talazoparib manufacturer 2004; Yu et al., 2009). Accumulation of SAH caused by inhibition of SAHH activity had been shown to increase the concentration ratio of SAH/SAM to inhibit SAM-dependent methyltransfer reactions and consequently lead to a global decrease in DNA methylation reactions (Tanaka et al., 1997; Fulneček et al., 2011). DNA methylation is involved in the regulation of gene expression, cell differentiation, and organism’s development (Penyalver et al., 2009; Banas et al., 2011).

Activation of genes has been ascribed to the demethylation of critical mCpG (cytosine-guanine dinucleotide) loci, and silencing of certain genes may be related to the methylation of specific CpG loci (Chiang et al., 1996). In the present study, we found that deletion of sahh significantly increased PLEKHM2 intracellular ratio of SAH/SAM (Fig. 5) and a higher accumulation of transcripts of key components of the methylation pathway, such as those encoding Ak, MAT, and OMT (Fig. 4b). The elevated level of these transcripts may promote the demethylation of CpG loci (Hiroki et al., 1997; Singh & Gupta, 2004; Mill et al., 2006). It has been shown that perturbation of the heterotrimeric G-protein signaling pathway by hypovirus results in hypovirulence in C. parasitica (Choi et al., 1995; Chen et al., 1996; Kasahara & Nuss, 1997). Chen et al. (2011) reported that a hypovirus-regulated cyclophilin, CypA, was required for full virulence in C. parasitica.

The results showed that the cell surface-displayed phytase was as

The results showed that the cell surface-displayed phytase was as least as effective as the secreted phytase in hydrolyzation of phytic acid under conditions similar to the digestive tract of chickens. Although phytase has previously been displayed on the cell surface of S. cerevisiae (Mo et al., 2005), its utilization as a feed supplement has never been demonstrated. As the rPhyA170-agg exhibits two peaks of optimal pH at 3 and 5.5 (which are similar to pH ranges in the stomach

and intestine of most animals), along with its stability over a broad pH range from 2 to 8, it is ideal for application as a whole-cell feed supplement without Selleck Ibrutinib the requirement for downstream purification processing normally associated with secreted phytase. This would save cost and time for the feed industry. Yeast cells harboring cell-surface-displayed phytase were analyzed further for their nutritional contents by proximate analysis (Table

1). When the celPhyA170-agg cells were added to feedstuff (at 6% w/w), the biotin content was significantly increased by approximately 68% compared with the control feedstuff. In addition, with the addition of yeast cells, niacin content was also increased by approximately 12%. Yeasts, especially S. cerevisiae, have long been used as feed supplements because of their many potential advantages. For example, Zhang et al. (2005) found that S. cerevisiae cell components added to broiler chicks could improve growth performance and meat tenderness in addition to better feed/gain ratio and body weight gain compared with control FK506 feed without yeasts (Zhang et al., 2005). Yeast cells harboring cell-surface phytase and containing biotin, niacin, and proteins can, thus, potentially enhance the growth of animals. Supplement of yeast to feedstuff can also reduce amounts of some ingredients of the feed. For example, whole yeast rich in protein can replace soybean

meal, and yeast cell wall rich in carbohydrates can replace corn to some extent (Zhang et al., 2005). Furthermore, yeast cells potentially contain other vitamins and trace elements, and supplementation of Liothyronine Sodium yeasts to feedstuff can reduce the requirement for these elements, thus lowering cost for the feed industry. Yeast cells containing cell wall mannan oligosaccharides were also reported to enhance immune response against infections (Zhang et al., 2005; Eicher et al., 2006; Santin et al., 2006). In addition to phytase, other polysaccharide- and nonpolysaccharide-degrading enzymes (such as xylanase, cellulase, and protease) are also typically added to feedstuff. Thus, P. pastoris codisplaying phytase with other enzymes on its surface could allow two or more enzymes to be expressed by the same yeast cells and would offer further advantages as a feed supplement. Currently, yeast codisplaying phytase and xylanase on the cell surface is being developed in our laboratory.

Because of their high

resistance to physical and chemical

Because of their high

resistance to physical and chemical factors, spores of the genus Bacillus are also considered excellent vehicles for delivering vaccines and drugs (Ricca & Cutting, 2003) as well as important tools to explore interplanetary life (reviewed in Nicholson, 2009). Dormant spores of Bacillus species have several mechanisms to minimize DNA damage induced by physical and chemical factors (reviewed in Nicholson et al., 2000 & Setlow, 2006; Moeller et al., 2007). Therefore, there is continued applied interest in the mechanisms of spore resistance, and one essential spore component that must be resistant is DNA. Bacillus subtilis spores saturate their DNA with α/β-type small, acid-soluble spore proteins Selleckchem LDK378 (SASP) to protect it from many types of damage, and spores lacking most of these proteins (α−β− spores) are more sensitive than wild-type spores to heat, UV radiation and many genotoxic chemicals (reviewed in Setlow, 2006, 2007). However, despite this protective mechanism, spores may accumulate potentially lethal and/or mutagenic DNA damage, including strand breaks and apurinic–apyrimidinic (AP) sites (reviewed in Setlow, 2006; Moeller et al., 2007). AP lesions are processed by AP

endonucleases, important components of the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Bacillus subtilis has two AP endonucleases, Nfo and ExoA, and these enzymes repair DNA damage accumulated by dormant and germinating/outgrowing spores (Shida et al., 1999; Salas-Pacheco et al., 2003, 2005; Ibarra et al., 2008). As a consequence, these enzymes are important in the resistance of wild-type spores to dry heat, and of α−β− spores to both wet and Selleckchem NVP-AUY922 dry heat (Salas-Pacheco et al., 2005), treatments that have been suggested to kill these spores by generation of AP sites

in DNA (reviewed in Setlow, 2006). To further assess the importance of Nfo in the resistance of wild-type and α−β− spores to various treatments, we have examined whether Nfo overexpression in spores increases spore resistance to wet and dry heat and UV radiation. Alectinib solubility dmso The plasmids and B. subtilis strains used in this work are listed in Table 1. All B. subtilis strains are isogenic with and derived from a laboratory 168 strain, PS832. Spores were prepared, purified and stored as described previously (Nicholson & Setlow, 1990). A 1070-bp fragment containing nfo was released from pPERM585 by digestion with BamHI and ligated into the BamHI site downstream of the strong forespore-specific sspB promoter (PsspB) present in pPERM615 (Table 1). This construct, termed pPERM632, was cloned in Escherichia coli DH5α and the correct orientation of the PsspB-nfo cassette was confirmed by restriction analysis and PCR (data not shown). Plasmid pPERM632 was used to transform B. subtilis strains PERM450 and PS832 to CmR by a double-crossover event at the amyE locus, yielding strains PERM641 and PERM869, respectively (Table 1).

A survey conducted in 2005, indicated an increased number of paed

A survey conducted in 2005, indicated an increased number of paediatric dentists were using the 1-appointment IPT technique in the United States compared with a 1997 survey[23]. In our study, the CH-IPT and 3Mix-MP overall success rates at the 12–29 month recall were 94% and 78%, respectively. These results are consistent with previous studies where the success rates of IPT with follow-up periods from 3 months–7 years ranged from 84–100% regardless of the type of base material or final restoration[4-9, 24-27]. The slightly lower success rate in our study may have resulted from inclusion criteria that accepted only mandibular

primary molars in which the diagnosis of pathology is easier compared with the maxillary teeth where overlapping permanent tooth buds can complicate their evaluation. Other studies included

maxillary and mandibular primary molars[4, 5, 7, 8, 24, selleck inhibitor 25] and some included both primary and permanent molars[6, 27]. Our data indicate that both techniques yielded similar success rates. Marchi et al.[24] found that the most frequent cause of IPT failure at the 6–12 month follow-up was the clinical observation of a fistula (2 of 27 teeth; 7.41%), suggesting misdiagnosis of the pulpal condition. In contrast, we did not find any clinical signs or symptoms of irreversible pulpitis or pulp necrosis at our 6–11 month recall. We did find a fistula or abnormal mobility in two teeth in the 3Mix-MP DAPT group at the 12–29 month recall. In our study, almost all findings of overall failure

resulted from radiographic failure except in one tooth in the 3Mix-MP group that was a clinical failure (abnormal mobility) but exhibited radiographic success with canal obliteration. Most of our findings are consistent with Farooq et al.[7] who found all clinical failures exhibited radiographic failure, but not all radiographic failures had clinical signs and symptoms. In our study, bifurcation or inter-radicular radiolucency was the Ribonucleotide reductase most frequent failure seen at the 6–11 month recall, whereas internal root resorption and bifurcation radiolucency were the most frequent failures observed at the 12–29 month recall. This finding is consistent with a previous study by Falster et al. in which the majority of their failures were from interradicular lesions noted at the 12–24 month recall, whereas internal root resorption was found in one tooth at the 18-month recall[4]. Precise radiographic and careful clinical diagnoses are essential to the high success rate of IPT. Pain and sensitivity are important clinical symptoms for proper diagnosis. It is difficult to obtain precise information related to these symptoms from children, however. Thus, parents, participation may help paediatric dentists more precisely make the pulpal diagnosis. The failures observed in our study could be explained by the difficulty in the diagnosis of pulpal status based on the child and parent’s report of symptoms.

, 1988; Lemanceau

, 1988; Lemanceau check details et al., 2009). TonB-dependent receptors represent an Achilles’ heel in the bacterial outer membrane that is exploited by antimicrobial agents seeking to damage or destroy the

cell. An example of such agents is the bacteriocins, a diverse class of protein/peptide antimicrobials produced by Gram-negative bacteria to maintain their ecological niche against closely related competitors (Braun et al., 2002). Depending on their site of action, bacteriocins must traverse at least the outer and often both membranes to reach their target. To cross the outer membrane, many bacteriocins possess a receptor-binding domain that binds with high affinity to a TonB-dependent receptor. This positions the protein on the cell surface, leading

to interactions with the periplasmic Tol or Ton complexes that many bacteriocins exploit to facilitate cell entry (Chavan & Riley, 2007; Kleanthous, 2010a,b). In the recently identified bacteriocins, pectocins M1 and M2, from Pectobacterium, the receptor-binding domain consists of a horizontally acquired plant-like ferredoxin protein. Strains of Pectobacterium, which are susceptible to these pectocins, are also able to utilize find more ferredoxin as an iron source (Grinter et al., 2012), suggesting firstly that Pectobacterium possesses a system for iron acquisition from plant ferredoxin and secondly that these pectocins have evolved to directly parasitize this system for cell entry. This review focuses on how iron acquisition through TonB-linked receptors, provides an advantage to Gram-negative pathogens during pathogenesis and how bacteriocins, specifically

pectocins M1 and M2, have evolved to take advantage of these receptors for cell entry. The most common strategy applied by bacteria to acquire iron from their environment is the synthesis and excretion of iron-chelating siderophores. Siderophores are structurally diverse, with almost 500 identified to date and generally consist of a flexible, often peptide-derived scaffold with a number of functional groups for coordinating iron (Krewulak & Vogel, 2008). These see more functional groups (α-hydroxycarboxylic acid, catechol and hydroxamic acid) possess two oxygen atoms which coordinate ferric iron in a bidentate fashion (Boukhalfa & Crumbliss, 2002). This geometry allows siderophores to bind iron with an exceedingly high affinity at physiological pH. As such, siderophores play a pivotal role in pathogenesis of many bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Yersinia sp. (Mossialos & Amoutzias, 2009; Fetherston et al., 2010). After the secreted siderophores have bound iron, they are sequestered by specific TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors and the iron–siderophore complex is imported into the periplasm (Braun & Hantke, 2011).

, 2005; Erb et al, 2007, 2009; Berg & Ivanovsky, 2009; Peyraud e

, 2005; Erb et al., 2007, 2009; Berg & Ivanovsky, 2009; Peyraud et al., 2009; Alber, 2011; Khomyakova et al. 2011). It is interesting that some intermediates of these assimilatory pathways, for example malate and glyoxylate, are also intermediates in the serine cycle and as such may selleckchem afford easy coupling with utilization of the serine cycle. Identification of

acetate utilization pathways in methanotrophs, however, has been challenging. For example, early enzymatic work on M. silvestris found no evidence for the key enzymatic activities in the glyoxylate cycle, i.e., isocitrate lyase and malate synthase (Dunfield et al., 2003; Theisen et al., 2005). Genomic analyses, however, show that genes encoding for these enzymes are present (Chen et al., 2010a). Subsequent deletion of the gene encoding for isocitrate lyase severely limited growth of M. silvestris click here on acetate, and abolished it on methane (Crombie & Murrell, 2011). As discussed by the authors, such data suggest that the glyoxylate shunt may be vital to M. silvestris for regeneration of glyoxylate in the serine cycle used for carbon assimilation from C1 compounds as well as from C2 compounds. These findings also suggest that this microorganism may have multiple mechanisms to utilize multicarbon

compounds, as growth still occurred on acetate when the gene encoding for isocitrate lyase was deleted. However, homologs of known key genes of ethylmalonyl-CoA, citramalate, and methylaspartate pathways for carbon assimilation from acetate are not readily apparent in the genome sequence of M. silvestris. In contrast,

phylogenetically closely related methylotrophs such as the alphaproteobacterium M. extorquens AM1 were often shown to utilize the coupled serine and ethylmalonyl-CoA pathways for growth (Peyraud et al., 2009; Ŝmejkalová et al., 2010). Preliminary analysis of publicly available genome sequences Protein tyrosine phosphatase of obligate methanotrophs [i.e. Alphaproteobacteria Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b (Stein et al., 2010), Methylocystis sp. strain ATCC 49242 (Stein et al., 2011), Gammaproteobacteria M. capsulatus Bath (Ward et al., 2004), Methylobacillus flagellatus KT (Chistoserdova et al., 2007), Methylobacter tundripaludum SV96, Methylomicrobium album BG8, Methylomonas methanica MC09, as well as Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera (Ettwig et al., 2010) and Methylacidiphilum infernorum V4 (Hou et al., 2008)], indicates that the key genes of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway (Fig. 3) are only present in the two alphaproteobacterial methanotrophs that were sequenced so far, and are found in synteny in the Methylocystis strain. Further, no evidence was observed for the presence of the set of key genes defining citramalate (Fig. 4) or methylaspartate pathways (Fig. 5) for multicarbon assimilation in any methanotroph for which a genome sequence is available. At present, however, such observations should be treated with caution. First, sequence information is still lacking for some reactions (e.g.

[5] Despite this recommendation, screening for HBV in the foreign

[5] Despite this recommendation, screening for HBV in the foreign-born remains inconsistent, and many individuals from HBV-risk this website countries have not been screened and are unaware of their status.[6-9] Asians and Pacific Islanders comprise the largest groups of Americans with chronic HBV infection, with a disproportionately high incidence of HCC.[10, 11] The US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008) found the highest prevalence

of chronic HBV (1.97%) in the group called “other race or ethnic groups,” most of whom are Asians.[12] Recent studies confirm that a 2% threshold for prevalence of chronic HBV infection, screening, and vaccinating is cost-effective.[3, 13] Many health care providers, however, lack knowledge about identification, screening, and vaccination in these high-risk populations.[14-17] Torin 1 mw In the United States, universal HBV immunization for infants at birth was instituted in 1991. Immunization of risk groups has been advocated for many years, including adults who travel to countries with HBsAg prevalence ≥2%.[4, 18] Although the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended universal HBV vaccination for infants in 1992, many foreign-born individuals living in the United States have not been vaccinated.

We hypothesize that the travel clinic is an underutilized setting for testing and immunization for HBV. Using data collected during a study of the demographics, medical history, and trip characteristics of travelers seen for pre-travel consultation in the Boston area, we describe for travelers born in countries with HBsAg prevalence ≥2% and for those born in

the United States, the proportion tested for HBV, their test results, and characteristics associated with testing, infection, and receiving vaccine. The Boston Area Travel Medicine Network (BATMN) consists of five travel clinics in metropolitan Boston that see approximately 7,500 travelers annually and collaborate on travelers’ health research. De-identified demographic data, trip information, HBV serology results, and vaccination Etofibrate status were collected for all travelers at the pre-travel consultations during the study period (June 12, 2008, for four sites and October 21, 2008, for one site through July 31, 2010). Data were entered into a secure database (CS-Pro, US Census Bureau, Washington, DC). IRB approvals were obtained at all sites and the CDC, including waivers of informed consent. Some sites offered optional data fields for clinicians to indicate why a person with unknown HBV status declined testing in a travel clinic including: (1) unclear if insurance covered test, (2) unaware of HBV or risk factors, (3) previously tested but results unknown, (4) patient declined phlebotomy, or (5) get the test from a primary doctor.

A total of 599 and 604 patients received etravirine and placebo,

A total of 599 and 604 patients received etravirine and placebo, respectively (median treatment duration 96.0 and 69.6 weeks, respectively). There was no significant difference between the treatment groups in the frequency of neuropsychiatric CP 690550 AEs. However, a significant difference in the frequency of rash was observed (20.5% vs. 11.8%, respectively; P < 0.0001); rash was generally mild

to moderate in severity; the rate of discontinuation because of rash was low (2.2% vs. 0% in the etravirine and placebo groups, respectively). The frequency of hepatic AEs was low and similar between the treatment groups (8.7% vs. 7.1%, respectively; P = 0.3370); hepatic enzyme levels did not increase over time. Lipid-related laboratory abnormalities and changes over time in lipid levels were generally comparable between treatment groups. Adjusting for treatment exposure, the frequency of AEs remained similar between treatment groups, with PLX4032 cost the exception of rash [13.7 vs. 9.3 per 100 PYE; relative risk (95% confidence interval) 1.48 (1.02–1.95)]. The frequency of AEs of interest was generally

similar between the treatment groups, both overall and when adjusted for treatment exposure, with the exception of rash which was more frequent in the etravirine group. The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) etravirine, which has activity against both wild-type HIV and NNRTI-resistant HIV mutants in vitro [1, 2], has demonstrated durable virological and immunological efficacy in treatment-experienced patients with NNRTI resistance in the phase III TMC125 DUET (Demonstrate Undetectable viral load in patients Experienced with ARV Therapy) trials [3, 4]. The overall safety profile of etravirine over 96 weeks, along with safety results in patients coinfected with hepatitis B and/or C virus, has previously been reported [4, 5]. Similar to results reported at week 48, etravirine displayed a tolerability profile at week 96 that was generally similar to that of placebo, with the

exception of rash, which occurred at a higher frequency in the etravirine group [4]. While overall safety data from the week 96 analysis have previously been reported Progesterone [4], there has been no analysis of the potential effect of differential treatment exposure on these findings. In addition, only minimal overall findings have been previously reported on adverse events (AEs) and laboratory abnormalities of interest. AEs of interest are those events thought to be potentially associated with the investigational compound or class, or with the relevant disease state, or that have been identified as important, based on data from earlier studies. They represent an emerging and ever more important aspect of the characterization of the safety profile of a compound during its development and post-marketing follow-up.

Analysis of the primary and secondary structures of Crh suggested

Analysis of the primary and secondary structures of Crh suggested this epitope as being suitable for the sensitive and specific detection of Crh. Indeed, when protein extracts were separated by SDS-PAGE and subjected to Western analysis, a strong signal at the position expected for Crh (molecular weight 9.3 kDa) became visible in the wild-type, but not in the Δcrh mutant (Fig. 1). Thus, no cross-reactivity with HPr occurred. Next, we prepared protein extracts

from the wild-type strain and its isogenic ΔhprK mutant, which were grown to exponential phase in minimal glucose medium. The extracts were resolved by non-denaturing PAGE and the gel was analyzed by Western blotting using the Crh-specific antiserum. Two signals became detectable in the wild-type strain (Fig. 2a, lane 12). Quantification of the signal intensities revealed a threefold stronger see more signal for the faster migrating band, indicating that Crh is predominantly phosphorylated under these conditions. In contrast, only the slower migrating band corresponding to non-phosphorylated Crh was detectable in the hprK mutant (Fig. 2a, lane 13). Thus HPrK/P is essential for phosphorylation of

Crh in vivo. The phosphorylation of HPr by HPrK/P is modulated by the carbon source. To determine whether this also holds true for Crh, we investigated the phosphorylation state of Crh in wild-type cells that were grown to exponential phase in minimal medium supplemented with various carbon sources. The degree of phosphorylation of Crh varied drastically with the carbon source utilized by the bacteria (Fig. 2a, top panel).

In contrast, the selleck chemicals llc total amount of Crh, as estimated from denaturing SDS gel electrophoresis, was only slightly affected by the carbon source and appeared to be somewhat higher when cells utilized unfavorable carbon sources such as succinate or ribose (Fig. 2a, bottom panel). The relative proportions (in percent) of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated Crh tuclazepam were determined by quantification of data obtained from at least three independent experiments (Fig. 2b). Crh was found predominantly in its non-phosphorylated form when bacteria utilized succinate, ribose or gluconate, all of which are unfavorable substrates. These substrates trigger no or only weak CCR and yield slower growth rates (with the exception of gluconate) in comparison with the other substrates (Singh et al., 2008). Under these conditions, 25% or less of all Crh molecules were phosphorylated. In contrast, the opposite distribution was observed with the other tested substrates. Those sugars triggered phosphorylation of ~80% of the Crh molecules. We were keen to trace putative changes in the phosphorylation state of Crh when carbohydrates become exhausted and bacteria enter the stationary growth phase. To this end, we grew the wild-type strain in minimal medium containing succinate, ribose or glucose as carbon source.