In sensitivity analyses excluding diabetics, albuminuria was asso

In sensitivity analyses excluding diabetics, albuminuria was associated with any AMD (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.11-1.29 and 1.57, 95% CI: 0.61-3.69 for micro and macroalbuminuria, respectively, P = 0.03).\n\nConclusions. Late AMD is more common among individuals with reduced kidney function. Whether this association reflects a common causal pathway or shared risk factors such as hypertension requires additional investigation.”
“Human immunodeficiency CBLC137 HCl virus (HIV)-1-associated neurocogniitive disorder can manifest with a variety

of neurologic, cognitive, and behavioral impairments. We report a case of a 49-year-old non-HIV risk woman with an occult HIV infection who posed a diagnostic challenge as she suffered from a HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder with predominant motor symptoms mimicking upper motor neuron disease. Functional imaging using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography provided evidence of involvement of several cerebral regions which exhibited a distinct pattern of relative cerebral hypermetabolism (subcortical, brainstem, and cerebellar regions) and hypometabolism (sensorimotor cortex, mesiofrontal, and mesiotemporal

Sirtuin inhibitor areas) and functionally corresponded to the clinical symptoms. The results of the positron emission tomography scan are discussed in comparison with the current positron emission tomography literature and future perspectives are illustrated.”
“Tendon injuries affect all levels of athletic horses and represent a significant loss to the equine industry. Accumulation of microdamage within the tendon architecture leads to formation of core lesions. Traditional approaches to tendon repair are based on an initial period of rest to limit the inflammatory

process followed by a controlled reloading program designed to promote the maturation and linear arrangement of scar tissue within the lesion. However, these treatment protocols find more are inefficient, resulting in prolonged recovery periods and frequent recurrence. Current alternative therapies include the use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) and a population of nucleated cells from adipose containing adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSC). Umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells (UCB) have recently received attention for their increased plasticity in vitro and potential as a therapeutic aid. Both BMSC and AdMSC require expansion in culture before implantation to obtain a pure stem cell population, limiting the time frame for implantation. Collected at parturition, UCB can be cryopreserved for future use. Furthermore, the low immunogenicity of the UCB population allows for allogeneic implantation. Current research indicates that BMSC, AdMSC, and UCB can differentiate into tenocyte-like cells in vitro, increasing expression of scleraxis, tenascin c, and extracellular matrix proteins. When implanted, BMSC and AdMSC engraft into the tendon and improve tendon architecture.

Limitations: No placebo comparison

\n\nLimitations: No placebo comparison Liproxstatin-1 manufacturer group. Small sample of predominantly female Caucasian insured outpatients, taking complex concurrent medication regimens.\n\nConclusions: Further studies are warranted to assess our preliminary observation that modafinil, compared to pramipexole, may be better tolerated for longer-term BD treatment. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights

“An increasing number of studies report that genus beta human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with skin cancer, with suggestions of specificity for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. We have conducted a systematic examination of HPV DNA in tumors from immunocompetent hosts, including SCC and basal HKI-272 inhibitor cell carcinoma (BCC), using a highly sensitive methodology and population-based samples to test the hypothesis that a differential prevalence of beta-HPVs exists between SCC (n = 101) and BCC (n = 101) tumors. When testing for all known beta-HPV types, we found no significant difference in HPV prevalence between the two histologies. However, SCC lesions were

significantly more likely to be infected with HPV genus beta-species 1 (includes types 5 and 8), than BCC samples (P = 0.01); this difference was not observed for any other species. A histologic difference was also observed for those HPV types previously reported to be important in skin cancer (P = 0.003). SCC samples showed a higher rate of infectivity (that is, were positive for multiple types) than BCC tumors (P = 0.02). These data highlight the potential importance of various genus beta-HPV

types, in particular genus beta-species 1 in SCC, and support the hypothesis of a behavioral PF-03084014 manufacturer difference of the virus within the two major histological skin cancers.”
“In autoimmune disease, a network of diverse cytokines is produced in association with disease susceptibility to constitute the ‘cytokine milieu’ that drives chronic inflammation. It remains elusive how cytokines interact in such a complex network to sustain inflammation in autoimmune disease. This has presented huge challenges for successful drug discovery because it has been difficult to predict how individual cytokine-targeted therapy would work. Here, we combine the principles of Chinese Taoism philosophy and modern bioinformatics tools to dissect multiple layers of arbitrary cytokine interactions into discernible interfaces and connectivity maps to predict movements in the cytokine network. The key principles presented here have important implications in our understanding of cytokine interactions and development of effective cytokine-targeted therapies for autoimmune disorders.”
“Background: Abnormal expression of Rho-GTPases has been reported in several human cancers. However, the expression of these proteins in cervical cancer has been poorly investigated.

“BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis is associated with several extrahep

“BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis is associated with several extrahepatic manifestations including portopulmonary

hypertension find more (PPHT). Recent data suggest that endothelins (ETs) are related to the pathophysiology of PPHT. The study aimed to measure serum ET levels in hospitalized cirrhotic patients and to determine their association with PPHT and patient outcome.\n\nMETHODS: Fifty-seven cirrhotic patients [43 males; median age 58 (28-87) years] underwent Doppler echocardiography. Patients with systolic pulmonary arterial pressure >= 40 mmHg and pulmonary acceleration time < 100 ms were deemed to have PPHT. ET-1, 2, and 3 serum levels were measured with an ELISA assay. All-cause mortality was recorded over a median period of 24 months.\n\nRESULTS: Nine out of 57 patients (15.8%) had PPHT. Among various clinical variables, only autoimmune hepatitis GSK621 was associated with PPHT (OR=11.5; 95% CI, 1.58-83.4; P=0.01). ET-1 levels [9.1 (1.6-20.7) vs 2.5 (1.4-9.2) pg/mL, P=0.02] and the ET-1/ET-3 ratio [4.73 (0.9-22.4) vs 1.6 (0.3-10.7), P=0.02] were significantly higher in patients with PPHT than in those without. ET-2 and ET-3 levels did not differ between the two groups. There was no difference

in survival between the two groups, although ET-1 levels were associated with an adverse outcome in Cox regression analysis (HR=1.11; 95% CI, 1.02-1.22; P=0.02 per unit increase in ET-1).\n\nCONCLUSION: Our data suggest that ET-1 and the ET-1/ET-3 ratio are elevated in patients with PPHT and that ET-1 is associated with a poor outcome irrespective of PPHT.”
“The disparity in health status between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Australia and New Zealand is widely known, and efforts to address this through medical education are evidenced selleck kinase inhibitor by initiatives such as the Committee of Deans of Australian Medical Schools’ Indigenous Health Curriculum Framework. These

efforts have focused primarily on formal curriculum reform. In this article, the authors discuss the role of the hidden curriculum in influencing the teaching and learning of Indigenous health (i.e., the health of Indigenous people) during medical training and suggest that in order to achieve significant changes in learning outcomes, there needs to be better alignment of the formal and hidden curriculum. They describe the Critical Reflection Tool as a potential resource through which educators might begin to identify the dimensions of their institution’s hidden curricula. If used effectively, the process may guide institutions to better equip medical school graduates with the training necessary to advance changes in Indigenous health.”
“Objective To study intraobserver repeatability and intermethod agreement between two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) transperineal ultrasound methods in assessing fetal head descent during the first stage of labor.

The literature highlights varied management strategies and no rec

The literature highlights varied management strategies and no recorded fatalities

with radical surgery in children HDAC inhibitor largely evolving from adult surgical practice. Conclusions: This study confirms that paediatric patients with ‘incidental’ NET tumours of the appendix have an excellent prognosis. Consensus guidelines should ideally be developed by paediatric oncology surgeons to avoid unnecessary radical surgery in many otherwise healthy children. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background/aims As part of the UK and Ireland study of primary IOL implantation in children under 2, active surveillance has been undertaken to identify children aged <2 years undergoing surgery for cataract. Ascertainment through active surveillance has been compared to the routine NHS capture of episodes of surgery, in order to identify any weaknesses in routine data

collection.\n\nMethods NHS information centre data on the number of children undergoing lens extraction in the first two years of life were compared to the number of cases reported through active surveillance.\n\nResults In 2009 and 2010 in the United Kingdom, 483 episodes of lens extraction in children aged <2 years with lens-related disease were reported to NHS databases, compared to 490 cases of lens extraction for congenital / infantile cataract ascertained by the BCCIG through active surveillance. There was also disparity in the coding of procedures.\n\nConclusions There is evidence of incomplete and inaccurate reporting to NHS information centres of cataract surgery in children MCC950 mouse aged <2 years. If the accuracy of the coding could be improved see more then the Hospital Activity Statistics offer a reasonable approach to monitoring trends in the NHS. Nevertheless, active surveillance clinical networks remain a more robust method of case ascertainment

for research.”
“Although folic acid has been investigated for its potential to inhibit carcinogenesis, few epidemiologic studies have assessed the effects of intake of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin, which may reduce cancer risk by acting as cofactors in folate metabolism or by other mechanisms. Using data from a large cohort of Canadian women, we examined the association of dietary intake of these nutrients, as well as intake of folate, methionine, and alcohol, with cancers of the breast, endometrium, ovary, colorectum, and lung ascertained during an average of 16.4 years of follow-up. After exclusions, the following numbers of incident cases were available for analysis: breast, n = 2491; endometrium, n = 426; ovary, n = 264; colorectum, n = 617; and lung, n = 358. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate risk of each cancer with individual nutrients and to explore possible effect modification by combinations of nutrients on cancer risk. Few significant associations of intake of individual B vitamins with the five cancers were observed.

Addition of uric acid (a peroxynitrite scavenger) before cytotoxi

Addition of uric acid (a peroxynitrite scavenger) before cytotoxic NO challenge, duplicates IAR, implicating peroxynitrite, with subsequent check details 3NY formation, in cell death, and abrogation of this pathway as a mechanism of IAR. IAR is dependent on the heme-metabolizing enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO1), as indicated by the elimination of IAR by a specific HO1 inhibitor, and by the finding that neurons isolated from HO1 null mice have increased NO sensitivity with concomitant

increased 3NY formation. This data indicate that IAR is an HO1-dependent mechanism that prevents peroxynitrite-mediated NO toxicity in motor neurons, thereby elucidating therapeutic targets for the mitigation of CNS disease and injury.”
“Potato dry matter and starch were isolated from three potato cultivars (Shepody, Russet Burbank, and Innovator) grown at two different locations (Manitoba and New Brunswick, Canada) to determine the influence of environmental conditions on physicochemical

properties. The total starch content in dry matter was higher in cultivars grown at New Brunswick (NB) than those grown at Manitoba (MB). The dry matter from Innovator cultivar had much higher total starch than that from the other two cultivars. The dietary fiber and free glucose contents in dry matter and apparent amylose and phosphorus contents in isolated starch obtained from potato cultivars grown at MB were greater than those grown at NB. The relative crystallinity of potato starch from cultivars grown at MB (29.5-34.2%) was substantially lower than that of the same cuitivars grown at NB (34.2-37.9%). The gelatinization temperatures MI-503 mw of dry matter and isolated starch from Innovator cultivar were greater than those from Shepody or Russet Burbank. The setback and final viscosity of starches isolated from cultivars grown at MB as compared to those grown at NB were much higher due to their higher apparent amylose

content. The resistant starch (RS) content ranged from 57.6% to 68.2% and 33.8% 50.9% for potato dry matter and isolated starch, respectively. The RS content of starch from cultivars grown at NB was much greater, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor clinical trial while the potato dry matter exhibited the higher RS content in cultivars grown at MB. Crown Copyright (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To evaluate the change in self-reported dizziness handicap after surgical repair using the cartilage cap occlusion technique in cases of superior canal dehiscence (SCD).\n\nStudy Design: Repeated measures, retrospective chart review.\n\nSetting: Tertiary referral center.\n\nPatients: Twenty patients over a 2-year period who underwent surgical repair of SCD using the cartilage cap occlusion technique.\n\nIntervention: Therapeutic.\n\nMain Outcome Measure: Preoperative and postoperative Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) questionnaires were completed (median, interquartile range).

“Objective: to examine the effect of individual counsellin

“Objective: to examine the effect of individual counselling on diet and physical activity from pregnancy to six months post partum, or from birth to six months post partum, on weight retention among Taiwanese women.\n\nDesign: a randomised controlled trial assigned participants to two experimental groups [from pregnancy to six months post partum (EP) and from birth to six months post partum (EPP)] and one comparison group.\n\nSetting:

a 3900-bed medical centre in northern Taiwan with around 3000 births annually.\n\nParticipants: a sample of 189 women who had regular check-ups during pregnancy and gave birth at the medical centre.\n\nInterventions: the comparison group received the routine outpatient selleck chemical department selleck compound obstetric educational programme. The EP group attended regularly scheduled clinic visits with individualised dietary and physical

activity education plans from 16 gestational weeks to six months post partum, and received on brochure. The EPP group received the same educational intervention as the EP group from 24-48 hours after birth to six months post partum.\n\nMeasurements: body weight, body mass index, health-promoting behaviour and psycho-social variables (self-efficacy, body image, depression and social support).\n\nFindings: average gestational weight gain was 14.02, 15.27 and 16.22 kg in the three EP, EPP and comparison groups respectively, and average weight retention at six months post partum was 2.34, 4.06 and 5.08 kg in the three groups, respectively.\n\nKey conclusions: a diet and physical activity intervention from pregnancy is effective for reducing post-pregnancy weight retention.\n\nImplications for practice: the findings of the present study should be taken into consideration when incorporating significant others and weight-loss maintenance strategies

with interventions for a healthier family lifestyle. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All AZD5153 mouse rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Fulvic acids (FA), the main organic compounds in landfill leachate, are toxic and bio-resistant organic compounds. Ozonation is effective in removing non-biodegradable components and the addition of catalysts can improve the removal rates. The objective of this study is to prepare and improve CeO2/AC catalyst for catalytic ozonation of FA. RESULTS: The cerium precursor, calcination atmosphere and calcination temperature changed the percentage of Ce3+ on the surface, thus affecting the catalytic performance of CeO2/AC catalyst. A linear relationship was established between the correcting apparent rate constant of FA degradation (k(app)/S-BET) and the percentage of Ce3+ on the surface. The CeO2/AC with 5% of Ce loading and calcined under hydrogen atmosphere at 450 degrees C showed the highest catalytic activity, allowing a FA removal efficiency of 83%. The FA removal efficiency and ozone utilization efficiency were enhanced in O-3/CeO2/AC compared with ozonation alone.

“Rapidly developing sequencing technologies and declining

“Rapidly developing sequencing technologies and declining costs have made it possible to collect genome-scale data from population-level samples in nonmodel systems. Inferential

tools for historical demography given these data sets are, at present, underdeveloped. In particular, approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) has yet to be widely embraced by researchers generating these data. Here, we demonstrate the promise of ABC for analysis of the large data sets that are now attainable from nonmodel taxa through current genomic sequencing technologies. We develop and test an ABC framework for model selection and parameter estimation, given histories of three-population divergence DAPT ic50 with admixture. We then CBL0137 inhibitor explore different sampling regimes to illustrate how sampling more loci, longer loci or more individuals affects the quality of model selection and parameter estimation in this ABC framework. Our results

show that inferences improved substantially with increases in the number and/or length of sequenced loci, while less benefit was gained by sampling large numbers of individuals. Optimal sampling strategies given our inferential models included at least 2000 loci, each approximately 2 kb in length, sampled from five diploid individuals per population, although specific strategies are model and question dependent. We tested our ABC approach through simulation-based cross-validations and illustrate its application using previously analysed data from the oak gall wasp, Biorhiza pallida.”
“Background: Emerging research suggests that young adult sexual minorities (identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual or engaging in same-sex attractions or behaviors) experience poorer health than their majority counterparts, but many measures of health inequity remain unexamined in population-based research. Purpose: To describe a wide range of health status and healthcare access characteristics of sexual minorities in comparison with those of the majority population in a click here national sample of U.S. young adults. Methods: Binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses

of Wave IV data (2008) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (participants aged 24-32 years, n = 13,088) were conducted. Health measures were self-rated health; diagnosis of any of several physical or mental illnesses or sexually transmitted infections; measured BMI; depression classified from self-reported symptoms; use of antidepressant and anxiolytic medication; uninsured; forgone care; and receipt of physical, dental, and psychological services. Analyses were conducted in 2012-2013. Results: Sexual minority women had elevated odds of most adverse health conditions and lower odds of receiving a physical or dental examination. Sexual minority men had elevated odds of fewer adverse health conditions. Conclusions: Young adult sexual minorities are at higher risk of poor physical and mental health.

Agricultural drainage water spiked at a concentration of 25 ng/L

Agricultural drainage water spiked at a concentration of 25 ng/L gave recoveries between 63 and 98 % (relative standard deviation 15 %), while at 10 ng/L, it showed a lower recovery of 32 % (relative standard deviation 47 %). The final SPE LC-MS/MS method had a limit of detection (LOD)(Method) and a limit of quantification (LOQ)(Method) of 7.5 and 23 ng/L agricultural drainage water, respectively. Determination of SDZ, spiked at a realistic concentration of 50 mu g/L, in artificial drainage water (ADW) containing common and high levels of phosphate (0.05, 0.5, and 5 mg/L) gave recoveries between

70 and 92 % (relative standard deviation 7.4-12.9 %). Analysis of the same realistic concentration of SDZ in ADW, spiked with common and high levels of dissolved organic carbon (2, 6, and 15 mg/L) confirmed the possible adaptation see more of a tandem solid-phase extraction (strong anion exchange (SAX)-hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB)) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

methodology. Recoveries obtained ranged from 104 to 109 % (relative standard deviation 2.8-5.2 %). The new methods enable determination of the veterinary antibiotic compound SDZ in agricultural drainage water from field experiments and monitoring schemes for phosphate-and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-rich water samples in intensive farming areas.”
“Contact dermatitis is one of the most frequent pathological manifestations of the skin and plays a central role learn more in clinical dermatology. The IL-1 family consists a large group of cytokines, which currently contains 11 members with different pro-and anti-inflammatory GW 572016 properties. Among the more pro-inflammatory-acting cytokines from the IL-1 family, IL-1 beta, IL-18, IL-33 and IL-36 have been shown to be upregulated in different inflammatory mouse experimental models or skin diseases. The article by Mattii et al. represents a thorough analysis of the expression of IL-1 family members including IL-33 in skin

samples from patients with allergic contact dermatitis. Although a lot of research is performed in this area, data from human samples are rather scarce. Therefore, Mattii et al. support the development of novel therapeutic concepts, which might include the use of antagonistic molecules targeting the IL-1 family network.”
“Introduction: This study assessed the viability of the rabies virus in the argasid tick Carios fonsecai following experimental infection. Methods: The mouse inoculation test (MIT), fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used. The rabies virus was administered to ticks via the intra-coelomic route, and the ticks were sacrificed at different time points. Results: The inoculated ticks were negative for rabies according to the MIT. Ticks macerated with rabies virus were positive according to the MIT and FAT. All of the tick lots tested by PCR were positive. Conclusions: The rabies virus became unviable shortly after its inoculation into tick bodies.

In addition, females that experienced unrestricted access to mate

In addition, females that experienced unrestricted access to mates maintained very high viability over their entire reproductive lives. Nevertheless, insects also performed better when allowed to mate four times compared with once or twice. 4. The present findings thus support GNS-1480 solubility dmso the hypothesis that multiple-mating behaviour is maintained owing to increased fitness benefits in the

current and the next generation. Selection for re-mating is, therefore, expected in field populations, which is likely to happen naturally owing to the aggregate lifestyle of O. communa.”
“The atrioventricular (AV) node is permanently damaged in approximately 3% of congenital heart surgery operations, requiring implantation of a permanent pacemaker. Improvements in pacemaker design and in alternative treatment modalities require an effective in vivo model of complete heart block (CHB)

before testing can be performed in humans. Such a model should enable accurate, reliable, and detectable Screening Library in vivo induction of the surgical pathology. Through our laboratory’s efforts in developing a tissue engineering therapy for CHB, we describe here an improved in vivo model for inducing chronic AV block. The method employs a right thoracotomy in the adult rabbit, from which the right atrial appendage may be retracted to expose an access channel for the AV node. A novel injection device was designed, which both physically restricts needle depth and provides electrical information via electrocardiogram interface. This combination of features provides real-time guidance to the researcher for confirming contact with the AV node, and documents its ablation upon formalin injection. While all animals tested could be induced to acute AV block, those with ECG guidance were more likely to maintain chronic heart block

>12 h. Our model enables the researcher to reproduce both CHB and the associated peripheral fibrosis that would be present in an open congenital PRT062607 Angiogenesis inhibitor heart surgery, and which would inevitably impact the design and utility of a tissue engineered AV node replacement.”
“Fibrin (Fn) enhances plasminogen (Pg) activation by tissue-type plasminogen activator(tPA) by serving as a template onto which Pg and tPA assemble. To explore the contribution of the Pg/Fn interaction to Fn cofactor activity, Pg variants were generated and their affinities for Fn were determined using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Glu-Pg, Lys-Pg (des(1-77)), and Mini-Pg (lacking kringles 1-4) bound Fn with K-d values of 3.1, 0.21, and 24.5 mu M, respectively, whereas Micro-Pg (lacking all kringles) did not bind. The kinetics of activation of the Pg variants by tPA were then examined in the absence or presence of Fn. Whereas Fn had no effect on Micro-Pg activation, the catalytic efficiencies of Glu-Pg, Lys-Pg, and Mini-Pg activation in the presence of Fn were 300- to 600-fold higher than in its absence.

(C) 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc and the American Pharmacists Associatio

(C) 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 100: 4225-4233, 2011″
“A case of a uterine fibro-osteochondroma in a 61-year-old woman with postmenopausal bleeding was presented. Ultrasound revealed a calcified lesion in the posterior wall of the uterus and a hysterectomy was performed. Histopathologic examination showed a well-circumscribed triphasic tumor composed of peripheral lobules of mature hyaline cartilage and foci

of trabecular bone with a core of loosely arranged fibroblast-like, spindle cells. This is the second reported case of fibro-osteochondroma, which has been described only in the uterus. Diagnosis requires thorough histopathologic examination to exclude metaplasia within a leiomyoma or uterine sarcoma. It is histologically benign and complete excision should be curative.”
“Questions\n\nDominance and occurrence of plant species change distinctly along soil reaction gradients; this has been attributed to different chemicals that can be either toxic or nutritional factors, varying with soil pH. The availability of different chemical forms of nitrogen (N) is one such

factor, but the extent to which this can explain species distribution is yet unclear. We asked (1) is it possible to correlate the extent of species’ physiological preference for ammonium vs nitrate to species occurrence along the

soil reaction gradient; (2) how strong is the explanatory power of species occurrence along the MLN2238 nmr soil reaction gradient for this preference, i.e. how much variation in species preference is explained by Ellenberg indicator values (EIV) for soil reaction; and (3) does inter-specific competition result in any shifts selleck inhibitor of this preference?\n\nLocation\n\nDry sandy grasslands in Southern Germany, with soil reactions ranging from acidic to calcareous.\n\nMethods\n\nWe carried out a common garden experiment and a greenhouse experiment with species from Central European sandy grasslands. In addition, we re-analysed previously published data. Availability of ammonium and nitrate was manipulated in the presence and absence of interspecific competition, while other factors including soil pH were kept constant. Growth responses were used to calculate species preferences concerning chemical N forms.\n\nResults\n\nSpecies habitat niches for soil reaction, represented by their EIV, were found to strongly correlate with species preferences for certain N forms, with acidophilous species preferring ammonium and calciphilous species preferring nitrate. This was the case in all experiments and treatments without species interaction, but surprisingly not for species mixture treatments that might have involved additional soil biota with impact on N cycling.