7 were prepared. The sulpiride-selective and reference electrodes were immersed and the potential of each sample solution was directly measured. The measured potentials were then plotted versus logarithmic values of concentrations and the calibration parameters were calculated by fitting calibration data to the equation shown in section 3.3. For the dynamic response studies, the electrode was calibrated by injecting, while stirring, adequate small volumes of sulpiride standard solution in 50 mL of acetate/acetic buffer of pH 4.7 to obtain final concentrations in the range 1 �� 10-6 �C 1 �� 10-2 M.2.6. Procedure for the determination of sulpiride in dosage formThe cont
In order to survive, bacteria constantly have to adapt to changing environmental conditions.
Environmental stimuli can serve pathogenic bacteria as signals for expression of virulence factors, for example, temperature often serves as a trigger for the induction of virulence gene expression. While temperatures of warm-blooded hosts (37-41 ��C) are important signals for the induction of virulence gene expression in humans and animal pathogens , plant pathogens generally express their virulence genes in response to lower temperatures [2-4]. Further, the later organisms adjust their virulence gene expression in response to diurnal and seasonal temperature fluctuations.COR is a non-host specific phytotoxin, which is an important virulence factor of several pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae, precisely pv. alisalensis, atropurpurea, glycinea, maculicola, morsprunorum, porri, and tomato.
Biosynthesis of COR is positively regulated by low temperature in P. syringae pv. glycinea PG4180 [4, 5]. PG4180 synthesizes COR in a temperature-dependent manner, with a maximum at 18 ��C . At 28 ��C, the optimal growth temperature of P. syringae, COR biosynthesis is negligible. COR consists of the polyketide coronafacic acid (CFA) and the cyclised amino acid coronamic acid (CMA), an isoleucin derivative. CFA and CMA are linked by the formation of an amide bond. The genes required for CFA and CMA biosynthesis are organized as two biosynthetic operons, cfl/CFA and CMA, respectively [6,7]. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the CMA biosynthetic genes has suggested that this precursor is synthesized by a mechanism similar AV-951 to the one used in the biosynthesis of non-ribosomal peptides [7-9]. In the CMA cluster seven genes have been identified. Six of them, cmaABCDET, encode the enzymes for biosynthesis of CMA from the progenitor L-allo-isoleucine . Until today no function has been assigned to the seventh gene, cmaU. CFA is a polyketide and its synthesis resembles the biosynthesis of polyketides in Streptomyces and Bacillus spp. . The CFA biosynthetic cluster contains nine genes.