greggii, P maximinoi, P oocarpa and P tecunumanii


greggii, P. maximinoi, P. oocarpa and P. tecunumanii

are at the stage where second and third-generation field trials have been established ( Camcore Annual Report, 2012). In Europe, national research institutions operated 15–20 separate breeding programmes often on the same species until 1990 (Pâques, 2013). This changed dramatically in the 1990s when budgets of many research institutes were cut and the interest of policymakers in tree breeding decreased. As a result, tree breeding programmes in Europe were forced to change their operating practices and to seek greater synergies through increased international collaboration and coordination, sharing responsibilities and targeting fewer tree species. During UMI-77 clinical trial the past 20 years, a number of projects, and especially the TreeBreedex project (2006–2010), have supported the transformation of European tree breeding into a collaborative effort, carried out by a network of national institutions sharing their research facilities, breeding material and field tests (Pâques, 2013). This new modus operandi now resembles the way tree breeding has been carried out elsewhere for decades. During the past

decade or so, genetic analysis of forest tree populations with molecular markers has strengthened R&D efforts and has increased the transfer of DNA samples. Range-wide genetic surveys were initiated for temperate tree species (e.g., Petit et al., 2002 and Magri et al., 2006) and they are now increasingly also conducted for tropical species (e.g., Jamnadass et al., 2009 and Kadu et al., 2011). These studies have Natural Product Library in vitro provided useful information on the geographic structure of genetic diversity, knowledge of importance for the management of natural tree populations and for the formulation of conservation strategies. Site-specific studies with molecular markers have also been essential

to better understand ecological and genetic Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase processes within tree populations (e.g., Lee et al., 2006), and the impacts of forest fragmentation and logging on them (e.g., Rymer et al., 2013 and Wickneswari et al., 2014). Genomic developments and new markers, such as those based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), also offer possibilities to survey adaptive diversity within tree populations (Neale and Kremer, 2011). With the advent of new, ‘next generation’ sequencing technologies, genetic markers for almost any tree species can now be developed at low cost (van der Merwe et al., 2014 and Russell et al., 2014). Tree seed crops often have high year-to-year variation, causing remarkable fluctuations in seed availability. This makes it desirable to maintain seed storage capacity and maximise seed harvest during mast years. However, many tree species (e.g., around 70% in humid tropical forests; Sacandé et al., 2004) produce recalcitrant or intermediate seed which lack dormancy and which are sensitive to both desiccation and low temperature (see Pritchard et al.

Fig 5 shows the information block for a candidate allele of locu

Fig. 5 shows the information block for a candidate allele of locus Penta E. It is the only erroneous sequence that was not automatically filtered by the 10% default threshold. The information supports that this candidate allele should be disregarded. The putative allele length is one STR repeat unit smaller than the high abundant

(47.40%) sequence with index 6, indicating that it might be stutter. Apart from this stutter there are no other sequence differences (Ist relation degree). Furthermore, the clean flank percentage is rather low (59.5%), indicating possible low quality Pexidartinib sequences. An unexpected strand distribution of 100% implies that there are no complementary reads supporting the presence of this allele candidate. Removing this allele candidate Panobinostat is accomplished by unchecking the “in profile” check-box. After selecting the “Length-based analysis” check-box, all allele candidates are displayed proportionally, according to their actual length within the locus, as shown in Fig. 3. For each locus, the x-axis is adjusted to show the locus length starting from the shortest allele and ending at the longest allele. The threshold bar is no longer displayed because allele

candidates with the same length are now stacked on top of each other, which creates one bar that shows the total abundance of all alleles with the same length within each locus. This representation resembles a CE profile. The example of the allele candidate in Fig. 5 now visually looks like a CE stutter peak based on the relative length and abundance difference as compared to the true Tau-protein kinase allele. After reviewing the profile by setting the threshold to an appropriate value, and removing allele candidates of poor quality, pressing the “Make profile” button yields the final profile. This profile can then be used to query databases or compare to the profile of a sample of interest. Fig. 6 shows the final profile for sample 9947A_S1. Using the threshold of 10%, it has

one Penta E allele 13 that is undetected relative to the known genotype (Table A.1). This allele is present in the data at an abundance of 8.85% and its corresponding green bar can be seen clearly in Fig. 3. The sub-optimal results of the pentanucleotide loci, Penta D and Penta E, were previously discussed in detail [9]. We show how an MPS data-set can be analyzed using an easy-to-use graphical user interface, requiring a limited number of parameters and almost no bioinformatics expertise. The interactive visual representation of the results shows additional information when hovering over the alleles, allowing for in-depth analysis of the underlying sequences and the related statistics. For clarity of explanation we chose to display and discuss the analysis of a single contributor sample, but the MyFLq framework equally works on mixtures because no assumptions on mixture composition are made to perform the analysis.

g when told to point to the man with the hat in the context of t

g. when told to point to the man with the hat in the context of two men, each with a hat). An extensive developmental literature investigates whether children are aware of the ambiguity of these instructions (Asher, 1979, Robinson and Robinson, 1976, Robinson and Robinson, 1977, Robinson and Robinson, 1982, Bearison and Sorafenib cell line Levey, 1977, Ackerman, 1981, Flavell et al., 1981, Beal and Flavell, 1982, Robinson and Whittaker, 1985 and Plumert, 1996; Beck et al., 2008; among many others). Two of the major findings suggest that they are not. First, children do select a referent in spite

of the ambiguity, and, second, they report that the instructions they were given were adequate. The latter is typically investigated by asking the child to tell the experimenter if s/he gave them enough information or not. For example, Robinson and Robinson (1982, experiment 1) report that when asked “Have I told/shown you enough about my card for you to get it right?” (ibid.: 273) 39 out of 52 children aged between 5½ and 7 agree that they have been told enough when in MLN0128 order fact the experimenter’s instructions were underinformative. Similar findings are reported in their second experiment,

and in several other studies where the question was phrased in terms of a binary choice (Robinson & Whittaker, 1985, experiments 3 and 4; Beal and Flavell, 1982 and Flavell et al., 1981, who asked children “Do you think the instructions Aspartate told you in a good way or in a not-so-good way how to [complete the task]”). Nevertheless, Beck et al. (2008), Nadig and Sedivy, 2002 and Nilsen and Graham, 2009 and others present evidence that children may be sensitive to the ambiguity in the referential

communication task, albeit in more indirect ways. Such evidence has also been available early on in this line of work, as Patterson, Cosgrove, and O’Brien (1980) report that children showed longer reaction times for ambiguous than non-ambiguous messages, and made more eye-contact with the speaker. Plumert (1996) reports that children were delayed in starting to search for an object when the instructions did not disambiguate the hiding place; and Flavell et al. (1981) report that asking children to follow ambiguous instructions to build a model elicited pauses and puzzled expressions. Moreover, Jackson and Jacobs (1982) and Brédart (1984), who used the sentence-to-picture matching paradigm, report that children are very good at selecting the referent for which the instructions would be informative, rather than the referent who was compatible with the instructions but for which the instructions would have been underinformative. These findings tentatively suggest that children can detect ambiguity, but for some reason resist correcting their experimenter.

Wedge-shaped aprons are deposited by sheet wash at the base of sl

Wedge-shaped aprons are deposited by sheet wash at the base of slopes where gradients decrease. Colluvial FLT3 inhibitor and alluvial fans form at the mouth of gullies and channels (Bierman et al., 1997). Floodplains may store tremendous volumes of LS in forms that reflect the abundance of sediment relative to transport capacity. For example, the lower Yuba River in California contains an estimated 250 × 106 m3 of hydraulic mining sediment from the 19th century (Gilbert, 1917). When relatively fine-grained deposits on floodplains overwhelm the transport capacity and the topography of the river, the deposits will be graded; i.e., they will form gradually sloping

continuous beds (Mackin, 1948) (Fig. 5). These graded LS deposits do not depend on barriers for deposition and preservation SCH727965 to be effective.

If LS is fairly abundant but geologic or engineering structures present substantial barriers to transport, intermittent sediment may collect in pockets resulting in a cascading series of frequent but separated deposits. For example, cascading LS deposits may occur in a series of wide, flat valley segments, or in a string of mill dams (Merritts et al., 2011). Punctuated LS floodplains occur with less sediment, greater transport capacity, or fewer topographic accommodation spaces, so that LS only collects in occasional isolated pockets, such as wetlands or impoundments. This is common in sediment starved areas such as glacially eroded landscapes in some parts of New England. Alluvium and slackwater LS deposits dominated by silts and clays may form in wetlands, lakes, estuaries, and other low-lying areas (Marcus et al., 1993, Hupp et al., 2009 and Gellis et al., 2009). They also may grade to deltaic

deposits in lakes, rivers, and coastal zones. Anthropic sediment Molecular motor delivered to coastal areas by fluvial systems has fed beaches and beach-dune complexes. These contributions often have gone unrecognized, however, for several reasons: 1) Identifiable characteristics of the fluvial sediment are stripped by winnowing of fines and abrasion of sand grains, so the evidence of their origin is obscured. At a geographically extensive scale, the spatial pattern of a LS deposit may be partitioned into source and sink zones with local storage of LS near the zone of production and one or more large zone of storage downstream where valleys are wide and gradients are low ( Fig. 6). These zones may be separated by a zone of transport with little storage due to lack of accommodation space or high transport capacity. In the transport zone, channels enter steep, narrow valleys that efficiently convey sediment. The three-zone model of LS distribution often applies to historical lumbering or mining disturbances in mountainous areas and loosely fits Schumm’s (1977) model of three zones of the fluvial system. The highly variable spatial distributions of LS often observed in North America call for explanation.

This area is characterized by a mountainous climate with a dry an

This area is characterized by a mountainous climate with a dry and windy spring, rainy summer, cool and foggy autumn, selleck screening library and cold and long winter. The mean annual temperature varies between 3.3°C and 7.3°C,

with a mean summer temperature ranging from 8.7°C to 19.3°C and a mean winter temperature ranging from −23.3°C to −16.1°C. The annual solar radiation is 124 MJ m−2. The annual mean precipitation is over 1,400 mm, which is the highest in North-Eastern China [12] and [13]. A mixed hardwood forest was located in this area prior to ginseng cultivation. Albic luvisols were developed from the parent material of loess. After deforestation, a binary mixture of the humus and albic horizons (generally 1:1) was used to create an elevated bed for growing ginseng. Prior to seed sowing and/or seedling transplantation in the spring, the soils were fertilized with composted manure. The bed width was approximately 170 m and was separated by 40-cm walkways. Local EGFR targets farmers constructed artificial plastic shades approximately 80 cm above the ginseng bed. The plastic covers were used from May through to September. Ginseng is a tender perennial. The first frost kills the leafy top, but a new top emerges the following spring from an underground bud on the perennial root. It takes 5 yrs or 6 yrs of ginseng cultivation

to grow into a mature product. Ginseng was planted on the same land for 3 yrs, then the root tissues were replanted into the newly-mixed bed soils for another 2 yrs or 3 yrs prior to harvest. Soil samples were collected from beds with different-aged ginseng plants in April (spring) of 2009 before the plastic shades were put into place. A 0.01 m2 area was plotted, and the ginseng was carefully removed. The soil was sampled at 0–5 cm (upper roots), 5–10 cm (root zone), and 10–15 cm (down root) using an auger in three Ibrutinib concentration replicates. We logged the

location using a global positioning system (garmin eTrex Venture HC; Garmin International Inc., Olathe, KS, USA) and re-sampled the soils in July (summer) of 2009, September (autumn) of 2009, and April of 2010 (the next spring). The re-sample location was just 1 m from the original plot. Parts of the soil samples were stored at 4°C to determine nitrate content. The remainder were air-dried and sieved through a 2-mm screen for laboratory analysis. Winter sampling was not conducted because of the difficulty of sampling frozen soils. The bulk density and moisture content of the soil was determined using general methods in the laboratory. The pH in water (w:v, 1:2.5) was measured with a pH meter (PHS-3C; Shanghai Precision Scientific Instrument Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China). The total organic carbon (TOC) was determined using a dry-combustion method. The soil nitrate was extracted using a 1M KCl solution and was analyzed using dual-wavelength UV spectrophotometry (Shimadzu UV-2450; Shimadzu Corporation, Kyoto, Japan) according to Norman et al [14].

Trends by geographical latitude were also analysed The null hypo

Trends by geographical latitude were also analysed. The null hypothesis was that there were no significant geographical

or temporal differences in M/F. Annual male and female live births had been obtained directly from WHO in 2000. The original sources were contacted (Drs. Galea and Inoue – personal communication) and the data was made available as an official, comma-delimited file directly LY2109761 from WHO. This was imported into Microsoft Excel, which was then used for collation and analysis. Data was available for South American countries as shown in Table 1. Data for Guyana and French Guiana were unavailable. South America may be divided into an area that spans from Honduras at circa 10° above the equator to 20° below the Equator, and a second area 20° below the Equator

and further south ( Table 1). Thus, only small parts of Bolivia and Brazil extend south and only small parts of Chile and Paraguay extend north of this arbitrary division. Excel was used for data entry, overall analysis, Pearson correlations and charting. The quadratic equations of Fleiss were used for exact calculation of 95% confidence intervals for ratios.6 Chi-squared Regorafenib ic50 tests and chi-squared tests for trends for male and female births were used throughout. The latter were applied using the Bio-Med-Stat Excel add-in for contingency tables. This add-in is based on the original work on this subject which led to the development of the Cochran-Armitage test (Dr.

Peter Slezák, Institute of Normal and Pathological Physiology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, personal communication). A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. This study analysed 147,773,689 live births. There have been significant increases and also decreases in M/F in different countries (Table 1). Significant trends were present mostly in countries closer to the equator. No discernable pattern was noted in that trends were sometimes opposed in neighboring countries. Countries were grouped as described in Table 1 (above and below 20° latitude), and five-year trends for live births are shown in Table 2. For the region 10° N-20° S (top part of table) data was available for some (but not all countries) up to 1995, and hence, the absolute values for male, female and total births are smaller for the last 3 columns for this Erastin mw region in Table 2. For the region >20° S, data was only available for some countries (not all) up to 1996. Hence, the last two columns are blank and for the last column with data, the male, female and total births are smaller for the last column for this region in Table 2. An increasing trend in M/F was found for the region >20° (r=0.3, chi=24, p<0.0001) for the entire period. Overall, for the aggregate (the entire continent), a significant decrease was present for the period 1950-74 (r=-0.3, chi=5.9, p=0.01) followed by a significant increase thereafter (r=0.5, chi=60, p<0.001).

5, 7 and 8 The variables were collected through active search in

5, 7 and 8 The variables were collected through active search in records by a qualified and trained HICC professional and were recorded in the Epidemiology Center database of the aforementioned commission. The sample included all neonates at risk admitted at the NPCU, considering NHSN criteria7 and/or ANVISA criteria8 for HAI reporting. Patient data and HAI notifications were entered in a computer software (Microsoft Excel, 2003, USA) spreadsheet and analyzed using the SPSS software

(release 13.0, 2008, USA). Statistical analysis included calculation of incidence density (ID) of infections Selleckchem XL184 (number of infections per 1,000 patient‐days), distribution of HAIs by weight range, and by surveillance criteria and notification. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for the criteria proposed by ANVISA8 considering the criteria established by NHSN7 as the gold standard for the total number of HAIs, and an exclusive analysis for reported sepsis cases, as they represent the majority of infections in which only one of the criteria was used for HAI notification. The analysis of agreement between the methods was used to measure the kappa index, which is based on the number of concordant responses beyond what would be expected by chance.9 Kappa ranges from ‐1 (total absence of agreement) to

+1 (complete agreement). Kappa values above 0.75 are considered as excellent agreement; between 0.4 and 0.75 as good, and below 0.4, the agreement is considered weak. The project was approved 3Methyladenine by the Research Ethics Committee of HC/UFMG, according to COEP: ETIC 312/08. There were no procedures that could interfere with the healthcare activities and routines of the NPCU of HC/UFMG. A total of 882 patients were admitted at the NPCU, totaling 19,137 patient‐days, and 330 newborns had at least one episode of infection reported by at least one of the criteria. A total of 522 episodes of HAIs were reported regardless of the criteria, find more with incidence

density (ID) of 27.28 infections/1,000 patient‐days. Of the patients followed by the epidemiological surveillance (n = 882), 73.8% were in the weight range > 1,501 g; however, the ID and the percentage of patients with HAIs were more elevated in the weight range < 750 g when compared to the others (p < 0.001). The total number of patients, number of HAIs, and incidence density are presented by weight range in Table 1. A total of 522 notifications of HAIs in 17 different topographies were filled, regardless of the surveillance criteria used. Sepsis was the most frequent infectious complication, with 305 cases (58.3%), of which 122 (40%) were early‐onset and 183 (60%) were late‐onset cases. Clinical sepsis (n = 197) corresponded to 37.7% of total reported infections, and sepsis with laboratory confirmation (n = 108) to 20.6% of the total HAIs, regardless of the criteria used.

Information could not be obtained for three asymptomatic children

Information could not be obtained for three asymptomatic children. Due to these distinct situations that influenced the timing of HIV diagnosis, children began to attend the clinic at mean ages of 4.5 years (SD = 4.1), 4.3 years

(SD = 3.5), and 0.8 years (SD = 1.8), respectively. Children assessed for AIDS-related symptoms were compared vis-à-vis the other two groups (i.e. those enrolled after family Selleck PLX3397 screening or routine follow-up of infants born to an HIV-infected mother). Mean age at study entry was 9.2 years (SD = 4.3). At the time of referral to HIV specialized care centers, 90/260 subjects were classified as CDC clinical category N (34.6%); 27/260, as clinical category A (10.4%); 73/260, as clinical category B (28.1%); and 68/260, as clinical category C (26.2%). Information could not be obtained for two children. 83/260 (31.9%) already had advanced immunodeficiency (CDC 3 immune category). Thus, 116/260 (44.6%) of children/adolescents had already progressed to AIDS when first admitted to care (CDC categories C and/or 3), and 35 (13.4%) of them were classified as C3. At the time of study enrollment, the mean duration of cART was seven years (SD = 3.7). Forty-five (17%) children

had used mono- or dual therapy before starting cART. At enrollment, 61% of children/adolescents were using cART with protease inhibitors (PI) and 39% were using cART with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimen; 98/260 (37.7%) were on their first regimen, 62/260 (23.8%) on their second regimen, and 100/260 (38.5%) on their third regimen or beyond. 188/203 (92.6%) of the children (caregivers’

information) and 44/57 (77.2%) of the adolescents reported no missed doses of cART in the last three days (100% adherence). 120/203 (57%) of children and 28/57 (49%) of adolescents had plasma viral loads bellow 50 copies/mL at the clinical visit closest to enrollment. The chance of viral suppression did not differ among those who had received mono- or dual therapy prior to cART initiation (OR = 1.0; 95% CI: 0.70 – 1.5). The GNAT2 two proposed outcomes (viral load < 50 copies/mL and no ART missed dose in the last three days) had no statistical association (p = 0.34) for both children and adolescents. Over half of the caregivers (142/260; 54.6%) were HIV-infected (mostly a biological parent), 102/260 (39.2%) were not infected by HIV (“uninfected”), and 16/260 (6.2%) did not know their HIV status. Caregivers living or not living with HIV had similar sociodemographic characteristics, except that HIV-infected caregivers were significantly younger, compared to those who were not living with HIV (p < 0.01), as shown in Table 1. HIV-infected caregivers were more likely to abuse alcohol or other substances than uninfected caregivers (p = 0.02). 252/260 patients (97%) had available pharmacy records.

5a and b) In challenged

shrimps, strong signals of Fein-

5a and b). In challenged

shrimps, strong signals of Fein-Penaeidin transcripts were found to be standard at all the seven exposure times at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h. The transcript of Fein-Penaeidin increased to the highest level at 6 h after PG and V. parahaemolyticus challenge. ( Fig. 6a and b). Significant difference (p<0.05) in Fein-Penaeidin expression was found between the PG, V. parahaemolyticus and the control group at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h of post –injections. The penaeidins which are present in different tissues of shrimp body and haemocytes, could combine antimicrobial BIBF-1120 and chitin-binding properties that may be important in interactions between immune function and developmental function through

the synthesis of the exoskeleton in shrimp [40]. The multifunctional properties of AMPs represent an important new area to be investigated. In the present study we have reported the full-length sequence of penaeidin from the haemocytes of the Indian white shrimp F. indicus and its mRNA transcript expression was analyzed in peptidoglycan and V. parahaemolyticus challenged F. indicus. While it is clear that each penaeidin class is encoded by a separate and unique gene, the issue of the genomic sources for the observed isoform diversity in expressed penaeidins this website is still unresolved. Cuthbertson et al. [41] reported the diversity of the penaeidin in L. vannamei and Litopenaeus setiferus, and discovered a novel penaeidin class, designated as penaeidin-4. In the present study, the deduced peptide sequence of the cloned PCR products Fossariinae of the F. indicus penaeidin gene has an open reading frame of 234 bp encoding 77 amino acid including an signal peptide of 19 amino

acids. The multiple alignment of the present study Fein-Penaeidin sequence has revealed a high level of homology with penaeidin from P. monodon. A phylogentic tree analysis of Fein-Penaeidin indicated the same subgroup of Penaeidin from P. monodon. Kang et al. [23] reported that F. chinensis ch-penaeidin is grouped together with P. monodon penaeidin. Three classes of penaeidin namely PEN2, PEN3 and PEN4 were identified in the pacific white shrimp L. vannamei [8] and [41]. The Fein-Penaeidin sequence showed similarity to penaeidin, penaeidin 5, 3b and 3a of P. monodon (66–95%), Fi-penaeidin-like AMP (80%), F. chinenesis penaeidin 5-2, 5-1, 3-2, 3-1 and 5-3 (66–74%), L. vannamei penaeidin 4c, 4a, 2b, 3i, 3h, 3g, 3f, 3a, 3d, 3a, 3a.3, 3a.2, 3a.1, 3j, PEN4-3, PEN3-11, PEN2-4, PEN3-1, PEN4 1, PEN2-1, 3c, 3b, 2 and 3a (61–68%), L. setiferus penaeidin 4d, 3l, 2d, 3n, 3m and 3k (59–60%), L. schmitti penaeidin 3-2, 3-1, 4-1, 2-2 and 2-1 (61%), L. stylirostris penaeidin 3, 2 and 3-2 (51–59%), F. penicillatus pen 3-p and pen 3-o (56%-58%), F. paulensis penaeidin 2-2 and 2-1 (62%), Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis penaeidin (65%), F. subtilis penaeidin (62%). F.

Many recent studies have shown that CCN2 is expressed in normal b

Many recent studies have shown that CCN2 is expressed in normal bones during development, growth, and remodeling, and that treating osteoblast cultures with recombinant CCN2 enhances their proliferation and differentiation [69], Dasatinib [120] and [121]. Furthermore, the overexpression of CCN2 in ST-2 cells, a bone marrow-derived stromal cell line, increased alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase mRNA levels, and mineralized nodule formation

[122]. Taken together, these studies have demonstrated that CCN2 is expressed in bone tissue and that its gene product exerts diverse modulatory functions on osteoblast differentiation and proliferation. The CCN2 gene is up-regulated in mechanically Epigenetics Compound Library in vivo challenged organ systems in response to various etiologies including hypertension, hemodynamic overload, metabolic injury and obstruction [123]. Mechanical regulation of the Cyr61/CCN1 and CTGF/CCN2 proteins has implications in mechanical stress-associated pathologies, with CCN2 gene expression induced in response to hydrostatic pressure [124], stretching [125], and shear stress [126] in various cell

types. Exposure of human mesangial cells to hydrostatic pressure for 48 h markedly increased CCN2 protein levels [125]. CCN2 mRNA expression decreased to 25% in 24 h after the load was removed in human lung fibroblasts [126], while it decreased to about 13% in vascular endothelial cells after fluid shear stress for 6 h [127]. Wong et al. [128] compared the effects of tensile strain and cyclic hydrostatic pressure on CCN2 expression in primary chondrocytes. Their data indicated that tensile strain induced CCN2 expression, whereas hydrostatic pressure had no effect; these findings were in contrast to the up-regulation

of CCN2 in mesangial cells exposed to hydrostatic pressure [125]. These reports suggest that mechanical stress may induce or inhibit CCN2 expression depending on the cell type. We performed a continuous application of mechanical stimulation in vivo using Bcl-w Waldo’s experimental tooth movement model in rats [129] and in mice [130] for mechanical-dependent bone remodeling. We found that CCN2 mRNA expression was markedly increased in osteocytes, especially on the pressured side of alveolar bone during bone resorption [130]. We showed that the proportion of CCN2 mRNA-expressing osteocytes significantly increased within 2 h after the initiation of tooth movement and reached a maximum at 12 h; thereafter, the proportion of CCN2-expressing osteocytes decreased from days 1 to 21 [130]. Our findings suggest that CCN2 produced during compressive strain might trigger bone resorption. Numerous studies concerning the function of CCN2 have been reported [66], [67], [68], [131], [132], [133] and [134] yet not in cultured primary osteocytes.