\n\nLevel of Evidence: Basic Science Study. (C) 2009 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees.”
“Angadenia berteroi is a tropical perennial subshrub with large yellow flowers that sets very few fruits in its native pine rockland habitat. To learn more about the breeding system of this rare species, we collected seeds from two populations and grew plants for greenhouse study. The flowers open before sunrise. They have a complex floral arrangement (the anthers form a conical structure surrounding the stigma, which has a secondary
pollen presentation) that promotes outcrossing from visits by long-tongued pollinators. Hand-pollinations show that A. berteroi is mostly self-incompatible, with greatest fruit set, fruit length, and seedling emergence resulting from crosses between unrelated individuals. Ricolinostat The low fruit set observed in natural populations
may be due to low visitation by pollinators, matings between closely related individuals, or both.”
“Objectives: To examine body composition, including the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and total body fat, in women and men with complete motor paraplegia and to make comparisons with able-bodied controls. Methods: In 13 subjects with traumatic, complete motor paraplegia CYT387 (six women, seven men) and 39 sex-, age-, and BMI-matched controls from the community (18 women, 21 men), we measured total and regional (upper extremities, trunk, and lower extremities) lean and fat mass using total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Both women and men with paraplegia had significantly lower lean mass in their lower extremities, as would be expected, and in their total body when compared with controls. However, they had significantly greater lean mass in their upper extremities than controls (4.4 kg vs. 3.6 kg, P = 0.004 and 8.6 kg vs. 6.7 kg, P smaller than 0.001 in women and men, respectively); all subjects with paraplegia studied used manual wheelchairs. Although total body fat mass was significantly greater in women (P = 0.010) and men (P = smaller than 0.001) with
paraplegia compared with controls, for the equivalent total body fat mass, BMI was actually lower in women and men with paraplegia than controls (e. g. 20.2 kg/m(2) www.selleckchem.com/products/bay80-6946.html vs. 25.0 kg/m(2), respectively). Conclusion: We report on body composition in persons with complete motor paraplegia, including women on whom limited information is currently available. Our results support the need to define better assessments of obesity in both women and men following spinal cord injury, particularly of central body fat distribution, as BMI underestimates adiposity in this population.”
“Most traumatic lower limb amputees ambulate using a prosthetic limb. Comfort, appearance of the missing limb and function are confirmed as being important during rehabilitation post-amputation.