An Er: glass laser is used with a 1-Hz repetition rate, 30-J/cm(2

An Er: glass laser is used with a 1-Hz repetition rate, 30-J/cm(2) fluence, and a hand piece with a 2-mm spot size. Nonthermal nonablative treatment is performed using two LED (LEDA SCR red light: 635 nm, 40 to AZD4547 supplier 120 W/cm(2), 40 to 120 J/cm(2); LEDA SCR yellow light: 585 nm, 16 to 35 W/cm(2), 20 to 100 J/cm(2); spot size 16 x 10 cm). Immediate responses as well as responses 1, 3, or 7 days postprocedure are studied; untreated skin explants serve as control. Immunohistochemical investigation (HSP70) is performed in all native, nontreated, and Er: glass laser- or LED-treated samples (n=175). Nonablative laser therapy leads to a clear time-dependent induction of epidermally

expressed HSP70, peaking between one to three PR 171 days post-treatment. In contrast, none of the various LED treatments up-regulated the HSP70 expression in our skin explant model. HSP70 is up-regulated by nonablative but thermal laser devices, but does not seem to play a significant role in the induction of skin remodeling induced by photomodulation. The maximum of HSP70 expression is reached later after Er: glass laser intervention compared to ablative fractional (AFP) treatment. (C) 2010 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. [DOI:10.1117/1.3449736]“
“Fulminant hepatic failure is a rare complication of infection by varicella zoster virus that is favored by immunosuppression.

Within 1 week, a 43-year-old male heart transplant recipient who was admitted with epigastric pain successively developed a generalized vesicular rash, hepatitis, and secondary multiorganic failure involving encephalopathy, despite treatment with acyclovir (since Day 2) and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin (since Day 6). Emergency liver transplantation was performed on Day 9, and 36 months later, his heart and liver function are normal. J Heart Lung Transplant 2009;28:1215-6. Copyright (C) 2009 by the International MGCD0103 Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.”
“Association between maternal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization diagnosed between 35 and 37 weeks of

gestation and early term birth (between 37 and 39 weeks) and maternal-fetal inflammatory response associated with this condition were tested. In this cohort study of women delivering at term at Centennial Women’s Hospital in Nashville, TN, GBS status and other clinical and demographic data were obtained from medical records. Exposed women were those testing positive for GBS (GBS positive [n = 490]) and the unexposed tested negative for GBS (GBS negative [n = 1,127]). To determine the inflammatory response associated with GBS, a cross sectional study, maternal and fetal plasma biomarkers (IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha) were measured in the same cohort. T-tests and logistic regression determined association between GBS status, biomarker concentrations and early term birth.

The probability of faecal contamination of milk, and thus the ris

The probability of faecal contamination of milk, and thus the risk of pathogens transfer appears to be modulated more by farm management than by the structure of the farm or the health status

of the herd. Such a method, combined with the microbiological evaluation of the prevalence of faecal excretion of such pathogens, can be used to implement a risk-based surveillance programme and to apply targeted control measures. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Cardanol-based novolac resins were separately prepared with different mole ratios of cardanol-to-formaldehyde with different acid catalysts. These resins were epoxidized with epichlorohydrin, in basic medium, at 120 degrees C. The resins were, separately, blended with different weight percentages of carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonotrile copolymer and cured with polyamine. Structural VRT752271 changes during blending were studied by FTIR spectroscopic analysis. Coats-Redfern equation was utilized to calculate the kinetic parameters, viz., order of decomposition reaction (n), activation energy (E), pre-exponential factor (Z), and rate decomposition constant (k), for the decomposition of the samples. It was found that the degradation selleck products of the epoxies and their blend samples proceeded in two steps. (C) 2009 Wiley

Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114:1694-1701, 2009″
“Aim. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis treatment is selleckchem difficult to assess and there is a need for new tools. The aim of this observational pilot study is to evaluate the potential

role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the initial staging and treatment evaluation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis.\n\nMethods. Twenty-eight patients were included between January 2009 and 2010. Twenty-three had a 18F-FDG PET/CT before treatment and/or during and/or after treatment. All patients will be followed for 18 months after the end of treatment. A control group of five patients with previous history of tuberculosis was also included and PET/CT was performed.\n\nResults. Three cases of differential diagnosis were excluded of the study. The initial PET for staging showed additional lesions in 8/10 patients compared to conventional imaging. At the end of treatment, 6/11 patients had a negative PET, and 5/11 patients had a positive PET. PET had a significant clinical impact for 3/10 patients at initial staging (guiding biopsy or increase of planned treatment duration), and for 3/16 during follow up (extend or early interruption of the treatment). All PET scans in the control group were negative.\n\nConclusion. 18F-FDG PET has an excellent sensitivity for the detection of extrapulmonary tuberculosis lesion and excellent negative predictive values. The impact of initial PET staging seems significant.

Amiodarone (AMD) is classically used for the treatment of atrial

Amiodarone (AMD) is classically used for the treatment of atrial fibrillation and is the drug of choice for patients with arrhythmia. Recent

studies have shown broad antifungal activity of the drug when administered in combination with fluconazole (FLC). In the present study, we induced resistance to fluconazole in six strains of Candida tropicalis and evaluated potential synergism between fluconazole and amiodarone. The evaluation of drug interaction was determined by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration and by performing flow cytometry. We conclude that amiodarone, when click here administered in combination with fluconazole, exhibits activity against strains of C. tropicalis that are resistant to fluconazole, which most likely occurs via changes in the integrity of the yeast cell membrane and the generation of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and DNA damage that could lead to cell death by apoptosis.”
“Poor electron transfer and slow mass transport of substrates are significant rate-limiting steps in electrochemical systems. It is especially true in biological media, in which the concentrations and diffusion coefficients of substrates are low, hindering the development of power systems for miniaturized biomedical devices. In this study, we show that CP-868596 price the newly engineered porous microwires comprised

of assembled and oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs) overcome the limitations of small buy DAPT dimensions and large specific surface area. Their improved performances are shown

by comparing the electroreduction of oxygen to water in saline buffer on carbon and CNT fibres. Under air, and after several hours of operation, we show that CNT microwires exhibit more than tenfold higher performances than conventional carbon fibres. Consequently, under physiological conditions, the maximum power density of a miniature membraneless glucose/oxygen CNT biofuel cell exceeds by far the power density obtained for the current state of art carbon fibre biofuel cells.”
“Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are chromatin-modifying enzymes that are involved in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation and development. HDAC inhibitors induce cell cycle arrest, differentiation, or apoptosis in tumor cells and are therefore promising antitumor agents. Numerous genes were found to be deregulated upon HDAC inhibitor treatment; however, the relevant target enzymes are still unidentified. HDAC1 is required for mouse development and unrestricted proliferation of embryonic stem cells. We show here that HDAC1 reversibly regulates cellular proliferation and represses the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 in embryonic stem cells. Disruption of the p21 gene rescues the proliferation phenotype of HDAC1(-/-) embryonic stem cells but not the embryonic lethality of HDAC1(-/-) mice. In the absence of HDAC1, mouse embryonic fibroblasts scarcely undergo spontaneous immortalization and display increased p21 expression.

Conclusion: PMN functional impairment in AD patients could repres

Conclusion: PMN functional impairment in AD patients could represent an additional cause of skin infections, coupled with other known defects in the innate immune system. The increased MFI of adhesion molecules and TLRs is rather a consequence of the increased skin barrier permeability to bacterial molecules

CCI-779 in vitro capable of stimulating immunological reactions. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Salt marshes are among the most productive systems of the world, with plant primary production limited by soil oxygen deficiency and nutrient availability. Nevertheless, root adaptations to anoxia and nutrient acquisition are different and often incompatible. The SW Atlantic salt marshes are characterized by high densities of the deep (up to 1 m) burrowing crab Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851) that may change soil physical and chemical characteristics by burrow construction. In this work, we experimentally evaluated the hypothesis that crab burrowing can enhance soil oxygenation, causing changes in Spartina densiflora Brongniart below ground tissues from structures adapted to anoxia

to systems adapted for nutrient acquisition. This response, in turn, would enhance plant productivity. Results from field observations show that oxygen availability is higher in zones with high burrow densities. As burrow densities increased, the plant root distribution changed from shallow (associated to low oxygen availability) to deeper and vertically homogeneous, with a positive correlation between burrow density and plant aboveground biomass. Experimental exclusion of crabs shows that they induce changes of root strategies from anoxia toleration to nutrient efficient acquisition, with increasing plant productivity. The invasive success that this plant shows in other parts of the world is likely to be due to their ability to tolerate harsh environmental conditions. Our results

suggest that the morphological Selleck SHP099 plasticity of S. densiflora is also important in their native zone given the characteristics of their specific habitat. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Rationale, aims and objectivesThis article conducts a literature review about the cost-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in ambulatory care.\n\nMethodsRelevant economic evaluations were identified by searching Medline (PubMed) and the National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database. The search strategy focused on literature reviews and primary economic evaluations. Economic evaluations were included, which compared pharmacotherapy for COPD, chronic bronchitis or pulmonary emphysema with an alternative in terms of costs and health outcomes.\n\nResultsThe majority of economic evaluations show that pharmacotherapy for COPD in ambulatory care is cost-effective.

This period, locally known as “Guerra del Frances”,

This period, locally known as “Guerra del Frances”, GSK2879552 generated the need for money and consequently five mints were opened around the Catalan territory. To mark the 200th anniversary of the beginning

of the war, an extensive campaign of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence measurements of some of these “emergency coins” was carried out. Apart from the silver (major constituent of all the studied coins) it has been possible to recognize copper as main metal alloying element. Likewise, the presence of zinc, tin, lead, gold, platinum, antimony, nickel and iron has been also identified. The obtained results have been useful not only for the characterization of the alloys, but also to determine the differences and analogies between the emissions and for historical

explanations. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: This work introduces a new electron gun geometry capable of robust functioning in the presence of a high strength external magnetic field for axisymmetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-linac configurations. This allows an inline MRI-linac to operate without the need to isolate the linear accelerator (linac) using a magnetic shield. This MRI-linac integration approach not only leaves the magnet homogeneity unchanged but also provides the linac flexibility to move along the magnet axis of symmetry if the source to target distance needs to be adjusted. Methods: Simple electron gun geometry modifications of a Varian 600C electron gun are considered and solved in the presence of an external magnetic field mTOR inhibitor drugs URMC-099 cost in order to determine a set of design principles for the new geometry. Based on these results, a new gun geometry is proposed and optimized in the fringe field of a 0.5 T open bore MRI magnet (GE Signa SP). A computer model for the 6 MeV Varian 600C linac is used to determine the capture efficiency of the new electron gun-linac system in the presence of the fringe field of the same MRI scanner. The behavior of the new electron gun plus the linac system is also studied in the fringe fields of two other magnets, a 1.0 T prototype open bore magnet

and a 1.5 T GE Conquest scanner. Results: Simple geometrical modifications of the original electron gun geometry do not provide feasible solutions. However, these tests show that a smaller transverse cathode diameter with a flat surface and a slightly larger anode diameter could alleviate the current loss due to beam interactions with the anode in the presence of magnetic fields. Based on these findings, an initial geometry resembling a parallel plate capacitor with a hole in the anode is proposed. The optimization procedure finds a cathode-anode distance of 5 mm, a focusing electrode angle of 5 degrees, and an anode drift tube length of 17.1 mm. Also, the linac can be displaced with +/- 15 cm along the axis of the 0.5 T magnet without capture efficiency reduction below the experimental value in zero field.

Implementation of this guideline will contribute to improving pat

Implementation of this guideline will contribute to improving patient safety and saving lives.”
“Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a severe microvascular complication that occurs in diabetes patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of cyclophosphamide (CTX) on expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1)

in renal tissue of rats Danusertib research buy with DN. We found CTX significantly reduces KI and blood glucose levels, microalbuminuria, and blood urea nitrogen. It also decreases the expression of TGF-beta 1 and increases the expression of MMP-9. Our data suggest CTX may reduce the excretion of urine proteins, alleviate kidney hypertrophy, and reduce blood glucose level through regulation of TGF-beta 1 and MMP-9 gene expression.”
“Cultivar identification of seven Korean domestic rice using DNA markers related to blast resistance was conducted. By, PCR analyses using six markers, which we developed in a previous study, BMS-777607 mw and one newly-developed marker for pib, it became possible to differentiate the seven cultivars from each other.

This result should contribute not only to cultivar identification but also, to molecular breeding of blast resistance for Korean rice.”
“Statistical models for genetic evaluation often make use of Gaussian distributions. However, some new statistical developments allow the use of an asymmetric distribution for the residuals. Within this context, we analysed three different patterns for the residual term on a data set consisting of 63 208 litter-size records, belonging to 19 255 sows, with a pedigree including 27 911 individuals. The three different residual distributions were: (1) Gaussian distribution, (2) asymmetric Gaussian distribution and (3) asymmetric Gaussian distribution with a hierarchical scheme for the asymmetry parameter. The operational model always included order of parity and herd-year-season as systematic effects, and the permanent

environmental and infinitesimal genetic effect of each sow as random effects. The most suitable model using the deviance information criterion (DIC) and posterior predictive Copanlisib molecular weight checking was model 3. This implies systematic, additive genetic and permanent environmental control of both litter size and the asymmetry parameter of the residual distribution. The asymmetry parameter can be understood as a measure of sensitivity to negative (or positive) environmental influences on phenotypes. The posterior mean (standard deviation) of the additive genetic variance was 0.28 (0.06) for litter size and 0.07 (0.01) for the asymmetry parameter. The posterior mean (standard deviation) of the additive genetic correlation between litter size and the asymmetry parameter was 0.21 (0.07).”
“OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term postpartum risk of end-stage renal disease in women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.

In the present study, the effects of local CNS IL-10 production o

In the present study, the effects of local CNS IL-10 production on microglia, astrocytes and neuronal connectivity under basal conditions were investigated using immunohistochemistry, molecular biology techniques, electrophysiology and behavioural studies. Our results showed that, in GFAP-IL10Tg animals, microglia displayed an increase in density and

a specific activated phenotype characterised by morphological changes in specific areas of the brain including the hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum that correlated with the level of transgene expressed IL-10 mRNA. Distinctively, in the hippocampus, microglial cells Autophagy Compound Library price adopted an elongated morphology following the same direction as the dendrites of pyramidal neurons. Moreover, this IL-10-induced microglial phenotype showed increased expression of certain molecules including Iba1, CD11b, CD16/32 and F4/80 markers, “de novo” expression of CD150 and

no detectable levels of either CD206 or MHCII. To evaluate whether this specific activated microglial phenotype was associated with changes in neuronal activity, the electrophysiological properties of pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus (CA3-CA1) were analysed in vivo. We found a lower excitability of the CA3-CA1 synapses and absence of long-term potentiation (LTP) in GFAP-IL10Tg mice. This study is the first description of a transgenic mouse with astrocyte-targeted production of the cytokine IL-10. The findings indicate that IL-10 induces a specific activated microglial phenotype concomitant with changes in hippocampal LTP responses. This transgenic animal will be a very useful tool to study IL-10 functions in the CNS, not only under basal conditions, but also after

different experimental lesions or induced diseases. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The purpose of this study was to determine whether signatures of adaptive postural control remain present in children with cerebral palsy (CP) when they performed a supra-postural task (i.e., a task performed above and beyond the see more control of posture) requiring them to balance a marble inside a tube held in the hands. Measures of center of pressure (COP) dynamics (how regular or predictable were the COP data as quantified by the sample entropy metric) and variability (as quantified by the COP standard deviation) were obtained from a sample of children with CP (n = 30) and compared to the same measures taken from typically developing (TD) children. Children with CP demonstrated an apparent inefficiency in postural control (greater irregularity, greater sway variability) relative to TD peers during a quietstance (no supra-postural task) condition (p smaller than .05). During supra-postural task performance, those differences were attenuated, though they remained statistically different (p smaller than .05). The findings illustrate flexibility and adaptability in the postural control system, despite the pathological features associated with CP.

We conclude that immunisation with a single inoculation of vaccin

We conclude that immunisation with a single inoculation of vaccine from the UK emergency reserve can protect cattle from clinical disease for at least 6 months post-vaccination and that a boost may be unnecessary in an outbreak situation. Some animals may become sub-clinically infected but this is likely to be dependent on the severity

of challenge. The study confirmed that a booster at 21 days post-vaccination was not necessary to maintain a cell-mediated response in cattle for 6 months. No increased benefits were recognised by increasing the antigen payload of this vaccine 5x. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: To examine the associations between intracranial artery calcifications (IACs) and coronary artery calcifications (CACs) in patients with ischemic stroke and to assess GW4869 clinical trial the predictive value of IAC for asymptomatic

coronary artery disease (CAD).\n\nMaterials and Methods: This retrospective study, approved by an institutional review board that waived the need for informed consent, included 314 consecutive patients who had acute ischemic stroke and who underwent both brain and coronary computed tomography (CT) within 1 month of stroke. IAC was quantified semiautomatically by calculating both Agatston scores (area of calcification multiplied by a weighted value assigned to its highest Hounsfield unit) and volumes on thin-section unenhanced images and was correlated with coronary calcium scores and volumes. Quartiles were created for IAC scores and were used for logistic regression analysis. An optimal 4SC-202 Epigenetics inhibitor IAC score cutoff value was determined check details and used to predict the presence of asymptomatic CAD. Independent factors for asymptomatic CAD were assessed by using multiple logistic regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to evaluate the added value of IAC scores for prediction of asymptomatic CAD.\n\nResults: IAC and CAC were significantly correlated for both Agatston scores and volumes (R = 0.665 and 0.663, respectively;

P < .001). A graded association was found between IAC scores and presence of asymptomatic CAD. Both IAC scores of 120.11 or greater (odds ratio [OR], 2.57; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45, 4.55) and diabetes mellitus (OR, 4.23; 95% CI: 2.42, 7.4) were independent predictors for asymptomatic CAD. Adding the IAC score to analytic models significantly improved the ability to predict asymptomatic CAD.\n\nConclusion: The IAC scores quantified by using unenhanced CT correlate significantly with coronary calcium scores and may serve as an independent predictor of asymptomatic CAD in patients with ischemic stroke. (C) RSNA, 2013″
“Bacillus sporothermodurans produces highly resistant endospores that can survive ultra-high-temperature treatment in milk.

To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-a

To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis of 9,828 TC cases and 109,995 controls from 14 case-control studies was performed. Overall, significant results were observed for rs965513 (OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.59-1.85, P<10(-5)), rs1867277 (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.51-1.78, P<10(-5)) and rs71369530 (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.66-2.44, P<10(-5)) polymorphism. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, we found that rs965513 polymorphism confer high risk for Caucasians with per-allele OR of 1.80 (95% CI: 1.69-1.92, P<10(-5)) compared to East Asians of 1.35 (95% CI:

1.09-1.67, P = 0.006). There was strong evidence of heterogeneity, which largely disappeared after stratification by ethnicity. In the subgroup analysis by sample size, and study design, significantly increased risks were found for the polymorphism. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated

that common selleck variations of FOXE1 are a risk selleck chemical factor associated with increased TC susceptibility.”
“The energy sources of yoghurt bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus) were examined with a focus on probable impact of sucrose on their galactose uptake. Yoghurt bacteria were isolated from samples of yoghurt which were purchased from different outlets and kept under refrigeration conditions throughout the period of isolation using nutrient agar (NA) and potato dextrose agar (PDA). After obtaining pure cultures of the isolates which were placed on NA and PDA slants, cultural characteristics and biochemical

tests were done on them for identification purposes. Their abilities to ferment glucose, lactose fructose, maltose, sucrose and galactose as carbon source were examined. The effect of sucrose on uptake of galactose by the isolates was also examined. The four strains of L. bulgaricus (LBI, LB2, LB3 and LB4) and one strain of S. thermophilus (ST5) obtained had similar characteristics typical of lactic acid bacteria. Sugar fermentation by the isolates differed Crenolanib chemical structure from one strain to the other. The extent of sugar fermentation by the isolates also varied depending on the types of sugar employed as carbon source. Glucose and lactose were better when used for growth by all the isolates when compared to other sugars. All the isolates had weak fermentation of galactose when compared to other sugars. All isolates however, had better fermentation of galactose in the presence of sucrose, with LB2 having the best and LB4 the least fermentation of galactose in the presence of sucrose. Appropriate amount of sucrose could thus be employed as possible enhancer for galactose uptake by galactose non-fermentive strains of yoghurt bacteria.”
“Background Previously we had successfully tracked adult human neural stem cells (NSCs) labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs) in host human brain after transplantation in vivo non-invasively by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Hierarchical occupancy models separate

occupancy and dete

Hierarchical occupancy models separate

occupancy and detection, and imprecise estimates simply indicate that more data are required for robust inference about the system in question. As for any statistical method, when underlying assumptions of simple hierarchical models are violated, their reliability is reduced. Resorting in those instances where hierarchical occupancy models do no perform well to the naive occupancy estimator does not provide a satisfactory solution. The aim should instead be to achieve better estimation, by minimizing the effect of these issues during CA3 mouse design, data collection and analysis, ensuring that the right amount of data is collected and model assumptions are met, considering model extensions where appropriate.”
“AimsWe examined the relationship between

different degrees of QRS prolongation and different QRS morphologies and clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure, reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF), and mild symptoms in the Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization and SurvIval Study in Heart Failure trial (EMPHASIS-HF). We also evaluated the effect of eplerenone in these patients according to QRS duration/morphology. Methods and resultsPatients were categorized as: QRS duration (ms) (i) smaller than 120 (n = 1375); (ii) 120-149 (n = 517); and (iii) 150 (n = 383), and QRS morphology (i) normal (n = 1252); (ii) left bundle branch block (BBB) (n = 608); and (iii) right BBB/intraventricular conduction defect (IVCD) (n = 415). The outcomes examined were the composite of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization and all-cause mortality. NVP-LDE225 cost Both abnormal QRS duration and QRS morphology were associated with higher risk, e.g. the rates of the composite outcome were: 10.2, 17.6, and 15.5 per 100 patient-years in the smaller than 120, 120-149, and 150ms groups, respectively. Eplerenone VX-809 order reduced the risk of the primary outcome and mortality, compared with placebo, consistently across the QRS duration/morphology subgroups. ConclusionWe found that even moderate

prolongation of QRS duration and right BBB/IVCD were associated with a high risk of adverse outcomes in HF-REF. Eplerenone was similarly effective, irrespective of QRS duration/morphology.”
“Background. Endoscopic therapy (ablation +/- mucosal resection) for esophageal high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or intramucosal carcinoma has demonstrated promising results. Little is known about patients who have persistent or progressive disease despite endotherapy. We compared patients who had successful eradication of their disease with those in whom endotherapy failed to try to identify factors predictive of failure and outcomes after salvage therapy.\n\nMethods. We performed a single-institution retrospective review of patients treated with endotherapy from 2007 to 2012.\n\nResults.