The distribution of sufficient thermal dose is then calculated an

The distribution of sufficient thermal dose is then calculated and assumed to correspond to thermally ablated tissue. The temporal resolution of MR thermometry is 1-4 seconds per image, and the spatial resolution is determined by the size of the image voxel which is typically about 2mm x 2mm x 6mm

(40). Therefore, MR-guided HIFU is only suitable for treatments in which the heating occurs slowly, on the order of tens of seconds for a single lesion. Motion artifact due to breathing and heartbeat is also a concern in clinical setting. The only US FDA-approved HIFU device available for clinical therapy utilizes MR thermometry Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical during treatment of uterine fibroids (39),(41). Ultrasound imaging Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical used in current clinical devices does not have the capability of performing thermometry, but it provides real-time imaging using the same energy modality as HIFU. This is a significant benefit, because adequate ultrasound imaging of the target suggests that there is no obstruction (e.g., bowel gas or bone) to ultrasound energy reaching the target, and the risk of causing thermal injury to unintended tissue is minimized. One method that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is sometimes used for confirmation of general targeting accuracy is the appearance of a hyperechoic region on the ultrasound

image during treatment. This region has been shown to correspond to the formation of a large boiling bubble at the focus when tissue temperature reaches 100°C, and underestimates the actual size of the thermal lesion since thermal lesions develop at temperatures

below Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 100°C (42). Imaging methods to assess HIFU treatment are similar to those used to assess the response to other methods of ablation such as radiofrequency ablation and include contrast enhanced CT and MRI (43). In addition, the use Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of microbubble contrast-enhanced sonography is also being examined as a method to evaluate the treatment effect of HIFU (44). These methods all examine the change in vascularity of the treated volume. HIFU of pancreatic tumors Devices Currently, HIFU treatment of pancreatic cancer is widely available in China, with limited availability in South Korea and Europe. There are two US-guided HIFU devices that are commercially available outside of China for treatment of pancreatic tumors, both manufactured in China: The FEP-BY™ HIFU tumor therapy PD184352 (CI-1040) device (Yuande Biomedical Engineering Limited Corporation, Beijing, China, Figure 4) and HAIFU (Chongqing Haifu Technology Co.,) (45). Both devices operate at similar ultrasound frequencies – 0.8 and 1 MHz respectively; both are capable of putting out total acoustic power of about 300 W (corresponding intensity up to 20 000W/cm2). Selleck Metformin B-mode ultrasound is also used in both machines for targeting and image guidance. In addition, a patient with pancreatic tumor was recently treated in Italy using the MR-guided ExAblate™ system (InSightec, Israel) for palliation of pain.

22,104,107,108 These observations have led some investigators to

22,104,107,108 These observations have led some investigators to postulate an MRI-defined vascular or atherosclerotic form of depression,107,109 which supports a strong link between aging and biological factors in depression occurring in the elderly. Also, evidence for serotonergic control of the regulation of CBF110,111 and the potential influence of age on this regulatory mechanism112 suggest an interaction – although as yet, illdefined – between disturbances in serotonergic function and risk of cerebral ischemic injury. Depression has been widely attributed

to deficient 5-HT neurotransmission. In the unique setting of geriatric depression, age-related alterations Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the 5-HT system may perturb its functional integrity and thus potentially contribute to the high prevalence and distinct, character of depression Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in late life. Postmortem studies have reported

conflicting findings of 5-HT receptor status in suicide victims.113-119 In a small group of elderly nonsuicide depressed patients, reductions in binding to 5HT2A, but not to 5-HT1A, sites in temporal, frontal, and parietal cortex were reported using membranes.120 Using autoradiographic techniques, the density (Bmax) for the 5-HT1A Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical receptor was reduced by approximately 40% in the superficial layers of frontal cortex (Brodmann area 9) from patients undergoing surgery for intractable depression.71 It is also worth noting that there was a 30% to 40% reduction in the concentration of the 5-HT metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), in the ventricular Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical CSF of these depressed patients, underlining the possible relationship between disturbances of serotonergic neurotransmission and depressive symptoms. Evaluation of serotonergic function Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical through imaging techniques has offered a unique approach to evaluating the heterogeneity of depression in the elderly. In an attempt, to assign neurochemical specificity to the blood flow and metabolic disturbances reported in depression,121-123 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET coupled with the 5-HT-releasing agent, dl-fenfluramine provided indirect yet in vivo evidence of serotonergic

Org 27569 dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex in depressed patients, who exhibited a blunted response relative to healthy controls.124,125 With the subsequent development, of selective imaging agents for serotonergic receptor sites, it became possible to quantify central 5-HT binding in depressed patients. Of particular interest are the 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors and the 5-HT transporter, which are all heavily implicated in the antidepressant, response (Figure 2). There are few published studies to date of serotonergic PET imaging in mood disorders and fewer conducted in elderly patients. Biver et al126 demonstrated a Akt inhibitor significant, reduction in the binding of [18F]altanserin to right, orbitofrontai 5-HT2A receptors in a group of mid-life depressed subjects.

This allows the operator to easily obtain unique visualizations,

This allows the operator to easily obtain unique visualizations, that may be difficult or impossible to achieve

using conventional 2DE (e.g. en-face views of the tricuspid valve or cardiac defects). Acquisition of volumetric images generates the technical problem of rendering the depth perception on a flat, 2D monitor. 3D images can be visualized using three display modalities: volume rendering, surface rendering and tomographic slices (Fig. 3). In volume rendering modality, various color maps are applied to convey the depth perception to the observer. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Generally, lighter shades (e.g. bronze, Fig. 4) are used for structures closer to the observer, while darker shades (e.g. blue, Fig. 4) are used for deeper structures. Surface rendering modality displays the 3D surface of cardiac structures, identified either by manual tracing or by using automated border detection algorithms on multiple 2D cross-sectional images of the structure/cavity of interest (Fig. 3 and ​and5B).5B). This stereoscopic approach Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is useful for the assessment of shape and for a better appreciation of geometry and dynamic function Selleckchem Akt inhibitor during the cardiac cycle. Finally, the pyramidal data set can be automatically

sliced in several tomographic views simultaneously displayed (Fig. 3). Cut planes can be orthogonal, parallel or free (any given plane orientation), Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical selected as desired by the echocardiographer for obtaining optimized cross-sections of the heart in order

to answer Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical specific clinical questions and to perform accurate and reproducible measurements (Fig. 6). Fig. 3 From the same pyramidal three-dimensional data set, the left ventricle can be analyzed using different display modalities: volume rendering, to visualize morphology and spatial relationships among adjacent structures; surface-rendering, for quantitative … Fig. 4 Normal mitral valve visualized en-face by transthoracic three-dimensional Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical echocardiography: A: Left ventricular perspective. B: Left atrial perspective or “surgical view”. RV: right ventricle, AML: acute myleogenous leukemia, PML: promyelocytic leukemia, … Fig. 5 Degenerative mitral valve disease: Parvulin A: Apical long-axis view showing a flail of posterior mitral leaflet. B: Volume rendering of the showing the location and extent of the prolapsing segment. C and D: Surface rendering of the valve leaflets, annulus and … Fig. 6 Multi-slice display of the left ventricle in a patient with antero-septal myocardial infarction. The three panels on the left show three apical views obtained by rotational slicing of the pyramidal data set. The nine panels on the right show nine short-axis … Clinical Applications Left ventricular quantification Noninvasive assessment of left ventricular (LV) geometry and function is critically important for clinical decision making and represents the most frequent indication for an echocardiographic study.

26 These findings suggest that cerebrovascular lesions lead to

26 These findings suggest that cerebrovascular lesions lead to depression and cognitive impairment through related mechanisms. Patients with late-onset major depression and vascular risk factors or ischemic brain lesions appear to have more psychomotor retardation,

apathy, and lack of insight, and less agitation and guilt than geriatric patients with early-onset depression without vascular risk factors.42,53 Moreover, patients with vascular depression have greater impairment in frontal functions and more disability.18 Identification of relationships among specific symptoms, lesion location, and overall damaged tissue can provide information about the pathogenesis of vascular depression. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Localization of lesions The clinical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical presentation of vascular depression suggests that damage of subcortical structures and their connections to some frontal lobe structures are the contributing pathophysiological abnormality. This view is further supported by the observation that subcortical dementing disorders, including vascular dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease, are more likely to result in depression than cortical dementias.54 In contrast, patients with Alzheimer’s disease develop

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical depression less frequently and have less severe depressive syndromes than patients with subcortical dementias.55 Moreover, development of depression is more likely to occur in Alzheimer’s patients with subcortical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical atrophy.56 The pathogenetic role of subcortical lesions in depression is supported by studies of stroke. Stroke of the caudate head is the most likely to result in depression, while thalamic stroke has a rather low incidence of depression.57 Most depressed patients with silent cerebral infarction have lesions in the perforating arteries territory.30 Similarly, WMHs of elderly dépressives are most prominent in subcortical and frontal areas.34-36

Reduced size of the head of the caudate58 and putamen59 has been observed in ncurologically unimpaired depressed patients. Lesions of the left hemisphere often result in depression.26 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Depression may occur after the right hemisphere stroke,60,61 despite difficulties in the recognition of depression due to anosognosia. Depressed mood is infrequent in right-sided stroke, but vegetative signs and abnormal dexamethasone suppression test are equally frequent in left and right stroke.60 In left hemisphere stroke, anterior lesions were associated with depression more often than posterior lesions.26 A more complex lesion-location relationship was observed in right stroke. Immediately after right stroke, depression was more severe in patients with posterior lesions,62 while the severity of depression occurring within 3 to 6 months after right stroke was associated with anterior lesions.62,63 These observations suggest that poststroke depression is mediated by different mechanisms, especially in patients with right hemisphere lesions.

In this regard, it is important to identify the brain centers tha

In this regard, it is JNK inhibitor in vivo important to identify the brain centers that govern core cognitive functions, as the suitability of a cognitive measure will likely depend on the target of a treatment intervention. The brain mechanisms of cognitive impairment in prHD are not well understood partly due to the dearth of structural imaging investigations into neurocognitive relationships. Despite progressive changes in the striatum and in cortical gray and white matter that begin decades before a manifest

diagnosis (Nopoulos et al. 2010; Paulsen et al. 2010; Aylward et al. 2011; Tabrizi Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical et al. 2011, 2012), much less is known about how they relate to functioning in different cognitive domains. Several studies of prHD have Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical reported that striatal volume (Campodonico et al. 1998; Jurgens et al. 2008; Paulsen et al. 2010; Papp et al. 2013; Wolf et al. 2013) and/or white matter volume (Paulsen et al. 2010; Papp et al. 2013) correlate with measures of executive functioning including the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Symbol Digits Modality Test (SDMT), Stroop Interference, Verbal Fluency, the Trial Making Test Part B, and the Towers Task. Yet few studies of prHD have

investigated whether cortical gray matter morphometry correlates in meaningful ways with functioning in different cognitive domains. In an early study of 15 prHD individuals Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that used whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) (Rosas et al. 2005), linear regression analyses

revealed that Verbal Fluency, Stroop Interference, and SDMT performances correlated with cortical thinning in some spatially different regions, suggesting that structural changes were functionally meaningful. Yet a recent study of 20 prHD individuals found no statistically significant relationships between cortical morphometry and cognitive functioning on tests of alertness, divided attention, verbal and spatial working memory, inhibition, or executive dysfunction Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, WCST), irrespective of the structural magnetic Tryptophan synthase resonance imaging (sMRI) method employed (i.e., VBM and cortical surface modeling) (Wolf et al. 2013). These discrepant findings may relate to the small sample sizes, which is problematic given the heterogeneity of symptoms and disease progression in prHD. Other studies of large combined samples of prHD and manifest HD have revealed relationships between cortical thinning and cognition (e.g., timing, visuomotor integration, emotion recognition) (Bechtel et al. 2010; Say et al. 2011; Scahill et al. 2013). However, the results do not address the neurocognitive relationships in the premanifest period, wherein structural changes in the brain may exhibit more regionally specific relationships with different cognitive functions rather than potentially relate more to global neurodegeneration.

Because the bilaterally injected rats could not move well to drin

Because the bilaterally injected rats could not move well to drink or to eat, they were intraperitoneally injected with electrolyte solution (Solita-T3, Ajinomoto, Tokyo, Japan) twice per day

for 1 week. A cytokine mixture containing 0.2 mg/mL rat recombinant GM-CSF (PeproTech, London, UK) and 0.2 mg/mL rat recombinant IL-3 (PeproTech) was subcutaneously injected from the next day of the 6-OHDA-treatment at a dose of 10 μg/kg body weight (Nishihara et al. 2011). For the control, the same amount of saline was subcutaneously injected. Determination of DA content in the striatum The DA content in the striatum was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (Yabe et al. 2009). Both sides Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the striatum Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical were dissected out and quickly put on an ice-cold glass plate and stored at −80°C until Doxorubicin purchase assayed. The striatum samples from both sides were independently homogenized with an ultrasonic cell disruptor (Tomy Seiko, Tokyo, Japan) in 0.1 M perchloric acid containing 5 mM EDTA (Wako) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzamine (Wako), and were

centrifuged. A 10-μL aliquot of the filtered supernatant was injected into a HPLC apparatus with a reversed-phase column. The mobile phase consisted Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of 15% (v/v) methanol containing 0.1 M sodium acetate (Wako) and 0.1 M citric acid (Wako), adjusted to pH 3.5, with 180 mg/L sodium octydyl sulphate (Wako), and 10 mM EDTA, pumped through the column at a rate of 0.25 mL/min. The data from the right and left striatum were averaged and processed for statistical analysis. Rota-rod test Motor coordination and balance were Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tested using a rota-rod (Ugo Basile, Rota-rod 7750, Italy) before administration of drugs, and 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days after administration of the drugs. The rota-rod test was performed by placing the rat on a rotating drum and measuring the time each animal was able to maintain its balance

while attempting to walk on top of the rod (Dekundy et al. 2007). The test was done between 1400 h and 1500 h. Animals were pretrained twice a day, 3 days before the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical test. The speed of the rota-rod was maintained STK38 fixed at 40 rpm over a 300-s period. The animals were touched on their tails several times in each session to maintain a high degree of alertness in the test. The rota-rod performance was expressed in seconds; namely the amount of time the animals remained on the rotating rod. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) The right side ventral midbrain containing the substantia nigra (midbrain delineated longitudinally 4.5 to 6.6 mm from bregma, perpendicularly under 7 mm from the skull) was dissected out at 7 days after 6-OHDA-treatment and stored at −80°C until assayed. Tissue samples were homogenized in ISOGEN (Nippon gene, Tokyo, Japan) using an ultrasonic cell disruptor. Then, their total RNA was collected.

50 Even with the categorical diagnosis of prediabetes, an individ

50 Even with the categorical diagnosis of prediabetes, an individual’s risk for progression to DM2 over 5 years can vary widely, from 100% (for those with HbA1c 6.0%–6.4% and FPG 116–125 mg/dL) to close to zero (for those with HbA1c < 6% and FPG < 110 mg/dL), based on prospective studies in a Japanese population.51 Thus a more precise personalized estimate of absolute risk for developing DM2 than is provided for by the broad categories of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and prediabetes is highly desirable. Personalized

medicine has the potential to improve prediction of DM2 risk. Simple clinical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical risk factors (age, weight, family history of DM) and simple laboratory measures (glucose, triglyceride) explain about 80% of the variance Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in DM incidence.52 Novel clinical/anthropometric risk factors for DM development continue to be reported.53 To date at least 65 genetic variants contributing to DM2 have been identified,18,22 but these account for less than 10% of cases. Initial

studies with a limited number of DNA markers showed only modest incremental value of adding genetic data to clinical information in predicting risk for DM2,21,54,55 thus the potential for genomics to enhance prediction of DM2 risk remains unrealized. While weight or body mass index (BMI) is consistently a strong determinant of metabolic syndrome and DM2, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical individuals with the same weight or BMI may have very different risks of DM2. A personalized assessment of the metabolic impact of obesity needs to take into account the distribution Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical pattern of the excessive adipose tissue. Intra-abdominal visceral and in particular hepatic fat accumulation is associated with insulin resistance and systemic inflammation, with increased risk for metabolic syndrome, DM2, and cardiovascular disease, while excess subcutaneous fat does not impair insulin sensitivity, leading to the concept of metabolically “benign versus malign” obesity.56 A large number of additional novel risk factors (including Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical FEV1, adiponectin, leptin,

gamma-glutamyltransferase, ferritin, inter-cellular adhesion molecule 1, complement C3, white blood cell count, albumin, activated partial thromboplastin time, coagulation factor VIII, magnesium, hip circumference, and heart rate) are each independently associated with risk for DM2 but add little or nothing to basic clinical Megestrol Acetate prediction models in predicting incident DM2.57 Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), traditionally selleck chemical considered to be a passive transporter protein for sex steroids, may have a more active role in DM causation. Observational studies identified lower levels of SHBG as a risk factor for insulin resistance and incident DM, and in-vitro studies demonstrated G-protein-linked receptor-mediated effects of SHBG on intracellular processes related to insulin resistance.58 Multiple confounding factors (e.g.

70 The task used in this study required participants to view and

70 The task used in this study required participants to view and categorize letter stimuli that could also be used to predict the administration of electric shocks. Instructions engaged either a goal-directed focus on threat-relevant information (ie, the color that predicted electric shocks) or an alternative, threat-irrelevant dimension of the letter stimuli (ie, upper/lower case of the letter or its match/mismatch Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in a 2-back task). The results provided no evidence of a psychopathy-related deficit in FPS under

conditions that focused attention on the threat-relevant dimension. However, psychopathy scores were significantly and inversely related to FPS under conditions that required participants to focus on a threat-irrelevant dimension Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of stimuli (ie, when threat cues were peripheral). In a follow-up study, Baskin-Sommers and colleagues59 specified this attentional-mediated abnormality in a new sample of offenders by measuring FPS in four conditions that CP-868596 chemical structure crossed attentional focus (threat versus

alternative Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical focus) with early versus late presentation of goal-relevant cues. First, the authors replicated the key findings reported by Newman et al60: that psychopaths’ deficit in FPS was virtually nonexistent under conditions that focused attention on the threat-relevant dimension of the experimental

stimuli (ie, threat-focus conditions), but was pronounced when threat-relevant cues were peripheral to their primary focus of attention (ie, alternative-focus conditions). More specifically, the psychopathic deficit in FPS was only Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical apparent in the early alternative focus condition, in which threat cues were presented after the alternative goal-directed focus was already established. These results confirm the idea that attention moderates the fearlessness of psychopathic individuals and, moreover, implicate an early attention bottleneck as a proximal mechanism for deficient response Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical modulation in psychopathy (see ref 71 for discussion of the bottleneck). Additionally, Larson and colleagues (unpublished data) recently completed an imaging study using this paradigm with an independent sample of inmates. Results indicated found that decreased amygdala activation in psychopathic offenders occurred only during the early alternative focus condition. Under this condition, psychopaths also exhibited greater activation in selective attention regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) than nonpsychopaths, and this increased LPFC activation was associated with decreased amygdala activation. In contrast, when explicitly attending to threat, amygdala activation in psychopaths did not differ from nonpsychopaths.

1 concluded that “quality of publication ethics, as instructed to

1 concluded that “quality of publication ethics, as instructed to the authors, can improve the quality #E7080 mouse randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# of the journals.” Indeed, the quality of a journal depends on several factors such as referencing/citation, accuracy, editorial board member, editor-in-chief, publisher, and publishing regularity as well as the publishing ethics. In order for any journal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to achieve the desired quality, the publisher, editor, and author must work all together by taking into account the said factors. As regards authors’ contribution, it is important that the journal provide the author with relevant

information on the preferred manuscript format. “Specific recommendations aiming to improve publication practice” should be included Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in instructions to authors. 2 Instructions to authors constitute an integral component of a journal; nevertheless, some journals tend to overlook this vitally important detail or fail to regularly publish it in each issue.2 A recent study by Jaykaran et al.3 in India lends further credence to the previous study and chimes in with the Salamat Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical et al.1 study inasmuch as it concludes that the incompleteness of instructions to authors is common. With respect to publication ethics, Jaykaran et al.3 reported that complete guidance regarding ethics was provided

in only seven out of the ten journals investigated. Another report from Brazil showed a very interesting statistic in that up to 79% of the journals assessed had no recommendations on ethics in their instructions to authors.4 Jaykaran et al.2 suggested that “medical journals must upgrade their instructions to authors to include ethical requirements.”2 Ideally, a journal’s policies, formatting requirements, and publication standards (including ethics) should be clearly elucidated in its instructions to authors. According to Salamat et al.1 however, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical not all journals furnish their authors

with clear instructions. The reasons for the failure Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of a journal to provide appropriate instructions should be further investigated. Some journals might overlook the importance of instructions to authors and omit to publish this information due to else page constraints or publication costs. It should be noted that any indexing and accrediting body assesses the quality of a journal’s instructions to authors when rating the quality of that publication. In regard to ethical contraventions , the usual excuse cited is lack of knowledge and resultant confusion in consequence of insufficient instructions to authors.5 Some journals might assume that their authors possess the required knowledge for manuscript submission, but it would always be safer to assume that it is not possible that all authors have a good basic knowledge of publication ethics.5 Wager6 says, “Journals do not provide consistent guidance about authorship and many editors are therefore missing an important opportunity to educate potential contributors.” In conclusion, no journal should overlook the importance of instructions to authors.

Moreover, it suggests that the objects in the scene are processed

Moreover, it suggests that the objects in the scene are processed as separate objects in specific locations. The PSW effect differed for the object change and location change as compared to the switch, while the Nc indicated a similar initial response to the object change, location change, and switch. If the stimuli would have been processed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as complete pictures, the similar levels of attention during the Nc period would likely have led to a similar PSW in all oddball conditions. However, the PSW was only present when either

a new object was placed into the scene, or a new location was occupied indicating that infants process the objects in the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical scene as separate objects. The ability of infants to process objects on a computer screen as separate objects opens up the possibility to use computerized environments for studying more complex use of objects, for example landmark use, in infants. The elicitation of an identical Nc component in all oddball conditions and a similar PSW in the location change and identity change conditions differs from findings in research on adult object processing showing different ERP effects for location change, object change, and switch Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (Van Hoogmoed et al. 2012). The differently distributed N2 and N3 effects for location change versus

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical identity change in adults suggest that location and identity of objects are processed in distinct brain regions. This finding is in line with the theory of Ungerleider and Mishkin (1982) on the segregation of the dorsal and ventral stream. Many studies have provided evidence for a structural or functional segregation (Tanaka Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical et al. 1991; Haxby et al. 1994; Ungerleider and Haxby 1994; Duhamel et al. 1997; Munk et al. 2002; Pihlajamaki et al. 2005; Jackson et al. 2011), while some contradictory evidence has also been found (Sereno

and Maunsell 1998; Op de Beeck and Vogels 2000; Jellema et al. 2004; Cichy et al. 2011). The dorsal/ventral distinction has been a key element in theories on object processing in infancy (Leslie et many al. 1998; Mareschal et al. 1999; Schlesinger 2006) and both streams have been shown to be developed already in 5- to 7-month-old infants (Wilcox et al. 2010). Our results reveal similarly distributed Nc effects in response to all manipulations and similar PSW effects to both object and location change, which may imply immaturely developed visual pathways in the infant brain, contradicting the theories on infants’ object processing. However, whereas in adults different scalp distributions suggest the involvement of different underlying selleck inhibitor neural generators, a similar distribution for all conditions in infants does not necessarily imply a contribution of identical neural generators.