As shown in Figure 2(a), dextran transport was increased approximately twofold in the cell cultures incubated with the AC formulation. Figure 2 Effects of the AC kinase inhibitor Brefeldin A formulation on Gemcitabine synthesis endothelial paracellular flux. (a) Increase in dextran permeation induced by the AC formulation. One hour after the addition of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), atelocollagen (AC), or the AC formulation (AC + ODN) to the inner … Next, the paracellular transport of atelocollagen was analyzed and compared with those of BSA and dextran. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Neither BSA nor dextran affected the TER value of the cells. Only very small amounts of BSA and dextran penetrated the cell sheet during
the 2-hour study period; on the other hand, much more atelocollagen passed through, even though the molecular weight of atelocollagen is 4-5 times higher than those of BSA and dextran (Figure 2(b)). An examination using BMVEC  was performed to determine whether the effect of the AC formulation was specific to HMVEC. As a result, we found that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the TER value of the BMVEC was also reduced by the AC formulation (and only the AC formulation), as shown in Figure 3. BMVEC forms the blood-brain barrier (BBB), where intercellular sealing function is strictly maintained. These results showed that the AC formulation is able to affect the paracellular flux of endothelial barriers. Figure 3 Effects of the AC formulation on the TER of BMVEC. The bar represents TER as a percentage compared Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to the value observed at
the start of the experiment. TER Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was determined at 1 and 2 hours after treatment with ODN alone (ODN), atelocollagen alone (atelocollagen), … 3.2. Effects on Cell Morphology It is well known that increased endothelial permeability is associated with impaired intercellular contact [32–35]. We carried out an immunohistochemical analysis of the cells treated with the AC formulation to clarify how their intercellular sealing was affected. As shown in Figure 4(a), treatment with the AC formulation markedly reduced the degree of intercellular contact,
as Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical shown by intercellular gap formation, actin stress fiber formation, cellular contraction, and a lack of VE-cadherin. Adequate expression of claudin-5, one of the key components of the endothelial barrier, was noted at the cell periphery. However, ZO-1 protein expression was absent from the intercellular gaps. On the contrary, Dacomitinib Western blotting revealed that treatment with the AC formulation did not affect the expression of these proteins (Figure 4(b)). Although the TER value remained low as long as the AC formulation was present in the culture medium, the treatment did not cause toxicity. The cells survived well for at least 24hrs, and both the TER and morphology of the cells could be recovered by removing the formulation (data not shown). No such morphological changes were induced by treatment with ODN or atelocollagen alone (Figure 4(a)). Figure 4 Effects of atelocollagen combined with ODN on intercellular formation.