Figure 1 Schematic description of newly developed 3D microarray technology. (a) The 3D microarray (PamChip) with the four array format (left), an array with a diameter of 45 mm (middle), and a set of oligo DNA probes immobilized Cediranib in vivo with 120 μm diameter (right). (b) The partial top (left) and cross section view (right) of multi-porous substrate within PamChip. (c) FD10 microarray system with functions of hybridization, washing, fluorescence imaging and image analysis, which are integrated and performed semi-automatically. Figure 2 Comparison between 3D microarray (left) and conventional
2D microarray (right). Recently, detailed, global, genomic analyses have lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of pancreatic tumors. This has opened up avenues for the development of novel diagnostic and individually tailored treatment strategies [5–9]. Microarrays have traditionally been applied to pancreatic tissue obtained from surgical
resection, but in this report, we investigated whether gene analysis by 3D microarray is possible using small samples obtained endoscopically for the pancreatic lesions. Methods Samples This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Nagoya University Graduate School HM781-36B mouse of Medicine. Written informed consents were obtained from all patients. Seventeen endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) specimens, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 11), chronic pancreatitis (n = 3), autoimmune pancreatitis (n = 2) and pancreatic endocrine tumor (n = 1), and 16 pancreatic juices, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 1), chronic pancreatitis (n = 10) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (n = 5) were obtained in Nagoya
University hospital. EUS-FNA was carried out and the obtained samples were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and HMPL-504 mouse stored Ribociclib at -80°C or immersed in RNAlater® (Ambion Inc., Austin TX, USA) at 4°C for 16 hours and then stored at -20°C. Pancreatic juices samples were obtained by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C or mixed with 10 volume of RNAlater® at 4°C for 16 hours and then stored at -20°C. The endoscope and needles used for EUS-FNA was GF-UCT 240 and NA-200H-8022 (22 gauge) (Olympus Co. Ltd. Tokyo Japan). The endoscope and catheters used for ERCP was JF-260V and PR-109-Q-1 (Olympus Co. Ltd. Tokyo Japan). Total RNA/DNA extraction Both total RNA and genomic DNA were simultaneously extracted from the same sample by ISOGEN (NIPPON GENE Inc., Tokyo, Japan). EUS-FNA specimens were pounded in a mortar with liquid nitrogen before extraction of the nucleic acids. Pancreatic juices stored by freezing at -80°C were diluted with 10 volumes of PBS and centrifuged by 2000 rpm for 10 minutes. The obtained pellets were used for nucleic acid extraction. Pancreatic juices stored by RNAlater® were centrifuged by 2000 rpm for 10 minutes.