For case studies and historical reviews of the human influence on Mediterranean forests in different regions see, e.g., Meiggs (1982), Pignatti (1983), Blanco Castro et al. (1997), Gerasimidis (2005), Loidi (2005), Pardo and Gil (2005), Casals et al. (2009) and Castro (2009). Long-distance pastoralism practices such as transhumance
involved shuttling between lowland wood-pastures and high-mountain grasslands, travelling via traditional migration routes such as the cañadas in Spain (Rodríguez Pascual 2001). Transhumance or similar seasonal grazing systems occurred, with fluctuating intensities, throughout the human history of the Mediterranean, and still occur, albeit on a minor scale (McNeill 2003). Formerly, transhumance linked northern Spanish mountains with regions in southern Spain as far as 800 km away. The dehesas of Spain and montados of Portugal ARS-1620 in vitro formed an important part of the transhumance systems, having been used as pastures in winter and spring. In northern Spain, seasonal grazing with cattle, sheep, goats and horses is still practised using communal pastures. Nowadays, long-distance transhumance works
by using railway and road transport (Mayor Lopez 2002). Similarly, in the southern Balkans and in Italy the herds of sheep, goats and cattle roamed the lowland wood-pastures in winter and spring before moving to the mountain summer pastures (Pardini 2009). In the Balkans, up to the beginning of the twentieth century long-distance pastoralism connected mountains and lowlands now separated by national boundaries (Beuermann Selleckchem PX-478 1967). Seasonal movements of the magnitude of former times between Balkanic regions ceased over a century ago. ‘Motorized transhumance’,
however, still Captisol mw exists in Spain, Italy, Greece and other Mediterranean regions. A glossary of terms associated with wood-pasture landscapes To describe wood-pasture types, we use terms well-established in geobotany, but not all of which are known outside their regions of origin. Most of these have local, temporal or regional connotations which may not be fully reflected by our definitions below. Dehesa Pastoral woodland of the Iberian peninsula dominated by chiefly old-growth sclerophyllous Metalloexopeptidase oak-trees, notably Quercus rotundifolia and Q. suber. There are various subtypes but most common are extensive grasslands with 30–100 lopped trees per hectare (Blanco Castro et al. 1997; Grove and Rackham 2003). While dehesa is the Spanish name, the Portuguese equivalent is montado (Castro 2009; Moreno and Pulido 2009). Forest In its original sense in Britain, woodland or non-wooded unfenced areas where owners kept deer (Rackham 2004, 2007). Garrigue (garigue, garriga) Mediterranean low scrub formation of browsed evergreen trees and shrubs, sub-shrubs and herbs resulting from long-term grazing, cutting and burning.