“Human cognitive functions are highly variable across indi

“Human cognitive functions are highly variable across individuals and are both genetically and environmentally influenced.

Recent behavioral genetics studies have identified several common genetic polymorphisms, which are related to individual differences in memory performance. In addition, imaging genetics studies are starting to explore the neural correlates of genetic differences in memory functions on the level of brain circuits. In this review we will describe how functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to validate and extend findings of behavioral genetics studies of episodic selleck products memory and give examples of recent advances in this new and exciting research field. In addition, we will present advantages Epoxomicin and problems related to the different sensitivity of behavioral- vs. imaging genetics studies and discuss possible methodological approaches for an appropriate evaluation and integration of the results. Although the field of imaging genetics of episodic memory is still young, it already became clear that imaging methods have a large potential to enhance our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie genetic differences in memory. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”

To investigate whether sleep disturbances during pregnancy affect cardiac autonomic modulation in the resting state. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 160 pregnant women at various stages of gestation. Participants were interviewed about their sleep length per night, sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI), daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, ESS), snoring habits, and symptoms of restless legs syndrome during the previous few weeks. Cardiac autonomic modulation in the resting state was

quantified by spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) from short-term electrocardiogram monitoring. The relationship of HRV to diverse covariates was studied by multiple regression analysis. Results: No significant influences were observed of short sleep duration (<7 hours per night), poor sleep quality (PSQI score >5), or restless Dinaciclib cell line legs syndrome on HRV measures. Participants with excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS score >9) and habitual snorers had a significantly elevated low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio and LF power in normalized units (IF norm). In multiple regression analyses, habitual snoring was strongly and positively associated with LF/HF ratio (P<0.001) and LF norm (P<0.001). Conclusion: Resting cardiac autonomic modulation was found to shift toward a sympathetic predominant state among pregnant women who are habitual snorers. (C) 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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