The information on reproductive outcome was also updated Both me

The information on reproductive outcome was also updated. Both men and women with epilepsy did not differ from the reference group with respect to number of children. However, subjects with active epilepsy during adulthood had fewer children than those who achieved remission before adulthood. Subjects with epilepsy who achieved remission before adulthood did not differ from control subjects with respect to number of children. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Plasma temperature and radial density profiles of the

plasma species in a high energy density cutting learn more arc have been obtained by using a quantitative schlieren technique. A Z-type two-mirror schlieren system was used in this research. Due to its great sensibility such technique allows measuring plasma composition and temperature from the arc axis to the surrounding medium by processing the gray-level contrast values of digital schlieren images recorded at the observation plane for a given position of a transverse knife located at the exit focal plane of the system. The technique has provided a good visualization of the plasma flow emerging from

the nozzle and its interactions GW4869 with the surrounding medium and the anode. The obtained temperature values are in good agreement with those values previously obtained by the authors on the same torch using Langmuir probes.”
“Cingulate-onset seizures, 4SC-202 cell line particularly those originating from parietal cingulate regions, are inadequately described and confounded by patterns of propagation. We analyzed scalp and

depth electrode recordings in a patient whose seizures originated from a lesion in the right posterior cingulate region and produced secondary seizure activity in ipsilateral mesial temporal structures. Analyses included the matching pursuit (MP) method of time-frequency decomposition and the Gabor atom density (GAD) measure of signal complexity. Although scalp recordings suggested a right temporal onset, seizures recorded with depth electrodes clearly began in the parietal cingulate region before producing a secondary discharge in ipsilateral mesial structures. GAD revealed a significant increase in complexity during ictal cingulate activity and a consistent pattern of subsequent complexity changes in the hippocampus 30 seconds later. MP and GAD measures were valuable supplements to confirm the stereotyped pattern of both time-frequency changes and complexity. This provides additional evidence for pathways between the parietal cingulate region and mesial temporal structures and raises questions as to whether parietal cingulate seizures can produce clinical symptoms independent of regional or remote propagation. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

SETTING: Eye Clinic, Ipoh General Hospital, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

SETTING: Eye Clinic, Ipoh General Hospital, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.

METHODS: Patients with nonglaucomatous eyes with open angles or with occludable angles were recruited. Ocular biometric measurements (ACD, axial length [AL], lens thickness and position) and IOP (tonometry) were performed preoperatively and 1 day

and 1, 4, 9, and 12 weeks postoperatively.

RESULTS: The open-angle group and occludable-angle group each comprised 35 patients. The occludable-angle group had a shallower ACD, shorter AL, thicker and relatively anterior lens position, and higher IOP preoperatively; postoperatively, there was a significant increase in ACD and a significant reduction in IOP (P<.01). Selleckchem SN-38 Anterior chamber deepening was inversely related to preoperative ACD in the occludable-angle group (P<.01). The mean preoperative IOP was higher in the occludable-angle group (15.77 mm Hg +/- 2.20 [SD]) than in the open-angle group (14.52 +/- 2.65 mm Hg) (P<.05). The IOP dropped progressively and significantly over 12 weeks postoperatively; the mean decrease was 2.31 +/- 0.99 mm Hg in this website the occludable-angle group and 0.77 +/- 1.17 mm Hg in the open-angle group.

The IOP decrease in the occludable-angle group was inversely related to the preoperative IOP (P<.01).

CONCLUSION: Phacoemulsification led to anterior chamber deepening and lower IOP in eyes with occludable angles, which suggests it is an option for preventing acute angle closure attacks in eyes with occludable angles and cataract.”
“Trilayer thin films Py/Fe-57/Gd and Gd/Fe-57/Py (Py: Fe20Ni80 permalloy) have been prepared by electron-beam evaporation and investigated using

conversion-electron Mossbauer spectroscopy (CEMS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), polar magneto-optical Kerr effect (PMOKE), and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). It was shown that the films deposited in the same vacuum and temperature runs but with the reverse order check details of the layers gave a different quality of interfaces: sharp (Py/Fe-57/Gd) and rough (Gd/Fe-57/Py). Different distribution of atoms in sharp and rough interfaces results in different magnetic properties: the Mossbauer spectra, FMR, and PMOKE data show the appearance of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and enhancement of magnetization in the samples with the rough Gd/Py interface. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3562871]“
“BACKGROUND: Exercise performance, an important aspect of quality of life, remains limited after heart transplantation (HTx). This study examines the effect of cardiac allograft remodeling on functional capacity after HTx.

METHODS: The total cohort of 117 HTx recipients, based on echocardiographic determination of left ventricle mass and relative wall thickness at 1 year after HTx, was divided into 3 groups: (1) NG, normal geometry; (2) CR, concentric remodeling; and (3) CH, concentric hypertrophy. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed 5.

“Background: During the last 30 years, the median sample s

“Background: During the last 30 years, the median sample size of research studies published in high-impact medical journals has increased manyfold, while the use of non-parametric tests has increased at the expense of t-tests. This paper explores this paradoxical practice and illustrates its consequences.


A simulation study is used to compare the rejection rates of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney (WMW) test and the two-sample t-test for increasing sample size. Samples are drawn from skewed distributions with equal HSP990 price means and medians but with a small difference in spread. A hypothetical case study is used for illustration and motivation.

Results: The WMW test produces, on average, smaller p-values than the t-test. This discrepancy increases with increasing sample size, skewness, and difference in spread. For heavily skewed data, the proportion of p < 0.05 with the WMW test can be greater than 90% if the standard deviations differ by 10% and the number of observations is 1000 in each group.

The high rejection rates of the WMW test should be interpreted as the power to detect that the probability that a random sample from one of the distributions Volasertib clinical trial is less than a random sample from the other distribution is greater than 50%.

Conclusions: Non-parametric tests are most useful for small studies. Using non-parametric tests in large studies may provide answers to the wrong question, thus confusing readers. For studies with a large sample size, t-tests and their corresponding confidence intervals can and should be used even for heavily skewed data.”
“Tripronuclear zygotes (3PN) occur in about 5% of cases in human IVF programmes. Human 3PN zygotes derived from a conventional IVF programme may contain

not only the extra male pronucleus but also a supplementary centriole. Researchers have tried to restore diploidy by removing the extra male pronucleus of the tripronuclear zygote. However, it is still unknown whether the procedure can remove the supernumerary centriole. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of this manipulation by analysing the first mitotic spindles Z-DEVD-FMK concentration of 3PN zygotes that have undergone extra pronuclear removal. A controlled trial was conducted using human 3PN zygotes from conventional IVF treatment. In the experimental group, the assumed extra male pronuclei in the 3PN zygotes were removed. The first cleavage patterns and in vitro development were observed in both groups; polarized light microscopy and immunocytochemistry were used to analyse the first mitotic spindles. The blastocyst formation rate was significantly higher (P=0.007) in the pronuclear-removed group (16.0%) than in the control group (4.5%). No significant differences were found between the groups in the first cleavage patterns and the distributions of the first mitotic spindle structure.

Findings were negative from blood and urine cultures, serological

Findings were negative from blood and urine cultures, serological tests for the HIV and brucellosis, and sputum tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A percutaneous biopsy of the L3-L4 disc was performed but the bacteriological studies recovered no organisms. A second needle biopsy was performed for broad-range 16S rDNA PCR testing, which identified C. canimorsus.

Conclusion. Broad-range PCR provided the microbiological diagnosis of culture-negative discitis in our patient. Broad-range

PCR should be Crenigacestat inhibitor considered in patients with culture-negative osteoarticular infections.”
“Little data are available on the outcome of tension-free obturator tape (TVT-O) procedures in obese and overweight women. We hypothesized that the subjective and objective outcomes of TVT-O in women with a higher body mass index (BMI) would differ from those with a lower BMI.

We retrospectively reviewed the records of 129 patients who had undergone TVT-O, stratifying by BMI into normal weight (n = 39), overweight (n = 58), and obese (n = 32) groups. We compared pre- and postoperative evaluations, including subjective and objective outcome of TVT-O, complications, and quality of life assessed by validated questionnaires.

The median follow-up was 24 months. There were no significant differences between

groups in terms of objective cure rate and subjective success, quality of life scores, or postoperative complications.

BMI did not influence the outcome of TVT-O procedures at a median of 24 months after surgery.”
“To investigate the efficacy of wide local excision as a surgical treatment for early-stage vulvar melanomas.

Wide CAL101 local excision with or without lymph node dissection was performed in three patients with stage I vulvar melanoma (American Joint Committee on Cancer classification, 1992).

All three patients were successfully treated by wide local excision. There was no evidence of recurrence at long-term follow-up in any of the patients.

Wide local excision with adequate tumor-free margins should be considered the treatment of choice for early-stage LY3039478 vulvar melanomas.”
“Study Design. Case report.

Objective. We present a case of myositis

ossificans (MO) of the upper cervical spine in a young child. The literature is reviewed with the classification, etiology, and treatment of MO discussed.

Summary of Background Data. Calcification of joint capsule, muscle, cartilage, and ligaments is a well-known phenomenon and is known as myositis ossificans. It is very rarely seen in the head and neck, with no reports of MO of the soft tissues surrounding the first 2 cervical vertebrae.

Methods. An 8-year-old boy presented with severe neck pain after a fall. He had had a similar neck injury 4 years before, but made a full recovery. Radiographs showed a large ossified lesion between the posterior elements of C1 and C2. After further imaging, a diagnosis of MO was made.


4% received any medicine/measures for pain relief, 44 3% were all

4% received any medicine/measures for pain relief, 44.3% were allowed to walk and 14.6% were catheterized.

Health care providers are unable to meet national minimal care standards in poorer areas, while over investigation and over intervention appear prevalent in higher-income areas. This warrants a more representative evaluation to enable more equitable and evidence-based practice.”

acoustic properties of four polymers compressed to high click here pressures in a diamond anvil cell were determined using the impulsive stimulated light scattering (ISLS) method. Despite the weak scattering efficiency of these polymers, good signal quality was obtained by using a continuous wave probe and an optical heterodyne detection. We provide, for the first time, longitudinal acoustic velocities up to 5 GPa for two thermoplasts:

poly(methyl-methacrylate) and poly(styrene), and two elastomers: poly(butadiene) and triblock copolymer of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene. The longitudinal acoustic velocities for all of these polymers displayed nonlinear pressure dependence. Despite the significant differences in the initial acoustic velocities these velocities converged above 2.5 GPa. This convergence is associated with the ultimate reduction of free volume in the studied polymers. We explored the possibility of measuring shear acoustic waves in these polymers using ISLS in a depolarized geometry. The data obtained here are important for modeling the response of polymers at extreme conditions. Staurosporine inhibitor (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3564955]“
“Transport of physiologic

saline through soft contact lenses is important to on-eye behavior. Using a specially LY2603618 designed Stokes-diaphragm cell, we measure aqueous NaCl permeabilities through commercial soft contact lenses at 35 degrees C. The permeabilities increase exponentially with the water content of the lenses spanning a range from 10(-7) to 10(-5) cm(2)/s. Equilibrium partition coefficients are obtained by the back-extraction of lenses initially immersed in 1M aqueous NaCl. Partition coefficients also increase with lens water content but over a smaller range, from 0.1 to 0.7. Because the partition coefficient values are smaller than the water content of the lenses, ideal theory is not followed. Donnan exclusion, bound water, and excluded volume are proposed explanations. The diffusion coefficients of aqueous NaCl through soft contact lenses increase with increasing lens water content following free-volume theory. Aqueous NaCl diffusivities in the lower water-content lenses are smaller than the diffusion coefficient of NaCl in water by factors up to 100 indicating very tortuous diffusion paths. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 1457-1471, 2011″
“Parturients with lumbar tattoos are often proposed to neuroaxial blocks (NB). There are no guidelines for this situation, and no reports of major complications derived from NB through tattoos.

Conjugative plasmids can be considered particularly successful

Conjugative plasmids can be considered particularly successful

entities within the communal pool, which have enabled HGT over large taxonomic distances. These plasmids are collections of discrete regions of genes that function as ‘backbone modules’ to undertake different aspects of overall plasmid maintenance and propagation. Conjugative plasmids often carry suites of ‘accessory elements’ Navitoclax mw that contribute adaptive traits to the hosts and, potentially, other resident prokaryotes within specific environmental niches. Insight into the evolution of plasmid modules therefore contributes to our knowledge of gene dissemination and evolution within prokaryotic communities. This communal pool provides the prokaryotes with an important mechanistic framework for obtaining adaptability and functional diversity that alleviates the need for large genomes of specialized ‘private genes’.”
“We have studied anisotropy of thin layers of amphiphilic tetrathiafulvalene selleck kinase inhibitor derivatives (TTF-4SCn, with n=12, 18, and 22) obtained by zone-casting technique. All the films show optical anisotropy, as seen by polarized optical microscopy and polarized UV-visible spectroscopy. By using polarized Raman spectroscopy an angular dependence of intensity

of different vibrational modes in respect to the zone-casting direction was determined. It was found that intensities of the modes related to central and ring C=C vibrations in the TTF core depend very strongly on the angle between the zone-cast direction and polarization plane of incident laser light. Comparison of the deduced orientation of the molecules in one of the films (TTF-4SC18)

with its crystal structure shows that the polarized Raman spectroscopy can be useful for controlling orientation of molecules in thin films (e.g., for online monitoring). Organic field effect transistors (OFETs), with channels oriented in parallel and perpendicularly to the zone-casting direction, were built using the oriented TTF-4SCn films. In all cases a strong anisotropy of the charge carrier mobility (mu) was found; the best results were obtained for OFETs with TTF-4SC18, for which mu(parallel to) = 0.25 cm(2)/V s, ON/OFF > 10(5), and mu(parallel to)/mu(perpendicular Cilengitide inhibitor to) approximate to 170. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3311554]“

Rigorous donor evaluation is essential for living related donor kidney transplantation (LRDKT). However, guidelines for living kidney donor evaluation are absent in China. The aim of this study is to describe the initial experience in the living kidney donor evaluation process in a single transplant center in China.


The evaluation process of our center is sequentially divided into five steps: outpatient consultation and information, preliminary evaluation, comprehensive evaluation, final informed consent, and ethics committee oversight.

Furthermore, Del variation linked with low-repeat-number (TTTA)(n

Furthermore, Del variation linked with low-repeat-number (TTTA)(n) alleles are involved in enhanced genetic susceptibility to unexplained infertility (adjusted OR = 4.33, P = 0.039) and endometriosis (r = -0.88, P = 0.026) which corroborates evidence on the overlapping patient profiles of ovarian dysfunction in both types of female infertility.”
“Purpose of reviewPhysiology-based

evaluation in stable ischemic heart disease is transforming percutaneous cardiovascular intervention (PCI). Fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided PCI is associated with more appropriate and EX 527 order beneficial outcomes at lower costs. The surgical community can no longer ignore this development. We review evidence for the rationale, practicality and appropriateness of FFR-guided coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), as compared with the current conventional, anatomy-based strategy for surgical revascularization.Recent

findingsPhysiologic evaluation links the nature (anatomic or functional) selleck products of coronary stenoses to the perfused myocardium supplied by the target vessel and challenges the use of anatomy as the sole criterion for revascularization intervention. In CABG, a functional perfusion deficit/ischemia identifies myocardial territories that would physiologically benefit from revascularization by grafting beyond the functional stenosis. Conversely, deliberately not grafting beyond an anatomic stenosis would dramatically change the procedure of CABG. Recent studies of functionally guided revascularization (PCI or CABG) support this approach, while recent trials of PCI vs. CABG demonstrated a late survival advantage with anatomy-based CABG.

Finally, new intraoperative imaging technologies are elucidating the physiologic consequences of surgical revascularization in real time, yielding insights into resolving this dilemma.SummaryPhysiologic-based revascularization is challenging our thinking about the historic strategy for CABG. Understanding better the physiologic consequences of revascularization will drive the evolution of CABG in the future.”
“Patients with primary cutaneous melanoma underwent sentinel node (SN) mapping and biopsy at 25 facilities in Japan by the combination of radiocolloid with gamma probe and dye. Technetium-99m (99mTc)-tin colloid, 99mTc-phytate, 2% patent blue violet JIB-04 inhibitor (PBV) and 0.4% indigo carmine were used as tracers. In some hospitals, 0.5% fluorescent indocyanine green, which allows visualization of the SN with an infrared camera, was concomitantly used and examined. A total of 673 patients were enrolled, and 562 cases were eligible. The detection rates of SN were 95.5% (147/154) with the combination of tin colloid and PBV, 98.9% (368/372) with the combination of phytate and PBV, and 97.2% (35/36) with the combination of tin colloid or phytate and indigo carmine. SN was not detected in 12 cases by the combination method, and the primary tumor was in the head and neck in six of those 12 cases.

Results: All groups that received antibiotics

showed sign

Results: All groups that received antibiotics

showed significantly lower bacterial counts than the no-treatment control group (p < 0.0003). Local gentamicin treatment decreased the number of colony-forming-unit isolates by approximately two orders of magnitude as compared with the number in the group treated with systemic cefazolin (p = 0.00005) and five orders of magnitude as compared with the number in the control group (p = 0.00003). The combination of systemic cefazolin and local gentamicin decreased the bacterial count by approximately seven orders of magnitude as compared with the count in the no-treatment control group and significantly decreased the count as compared with that in the group treated with local gentamicin alone (p = 0.00006).

Conclusions: As we hypothesized, the combination of systemic cefazolin and local gentamicin proved to be the most effective regimen. Local injection of gentamicin proved more effective than systemic administration

of cefazolin but was not as effective as the combination of both antibiotics. The initially high concentrations of locally applied antibiotic and the utilization of two different classes of antibiotics may have contributed to the observed efficacy.

Clinical Relevance: If our findings are supported by those in clinical trials, the combination of local gentamicin and systemic cefazolin MDV3100 could prove valuable as a regimen for prophylaxis against surgical wound infection.”
“Radiopharmaceuticals are radiation-emitting substances used in medicine for radiotherapy and imaging diagnosis. Contemporary Epigenetic inhibitor datasheet view on safety emphasizes that safety critical facilities should be able to proactively evaluate

safety in their activities. This proactivity is related to organizational resilience and should be endorsed by the facility safety management system. Resilience is understood as the intrinsic ability of an organization to adjust its functioning prior to, during, or following changes or disturbances, so that it can sustain required operations under both expected and unexpected conditions. In this context, resilience engineering tools (RE) has fast become recognized as a valuable new complement to the existing approaches to safety management. In this direction, the study describes a leading indicators framework based on RE principles for safety management in a radiopharmaceuticals production facility located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The organizations that use leading indicators will be able to proactively evaluate and manage safety, enhancing the overall system resilience.”
“Surgical strategy for thoracic disc herniation (TDH) remains controversial. We have performed posterior thoracic interbody fusion (PTIF) by bilateral total facetectomies with pedicle screw fixation. The objectives of this retrospective study are to demonstrate the surgical outcomes of PTIF for TDH.

A broad

photoluminescence excitation (PLE) band of Yb3+ l

A broad

photoluminescence excitation (PLE) band of Yb3+ luminescence peaked at 390 nm corresponds to the absorption band and the photocurrent excitation band in the non-doped CeO2 crystal, which are also in accordance with the PLE band of Eu3+ luminescence in the Eu3+-doped CeO2. Judging from these results, the PLE band is attributed to the charge transfer (CT) band from O2- to Ce4+, but not to the CT from O2- to Yb3+. From the sintering atmosphere dependence of the PL and PLE, we found that the oxygen vacancies and Ce3+ impurities Vactosertib in vivo are not responsible for the 390 nm-absorption band but they work as a quenching center for the Yb3+ luminescence. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3642984]“
“Emergency response preparedness for radiological accidents involving wound contamination has become more important, considering the current extending tendency in the nuclear industry related to the nuclear fuel cycle. The US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) proposed a biokinetic and dosimetric model for the intake of radionuclides through contaminated wounds in

2007. The present paper describes the implementation of this NCRP wound model for the prediction of systemic behaviour of some important radioactive elements encountered in workplaces related to the nuclear industry. The NCRP wound model was linked to the current ICRP systemic model at each blood compartment and simultaneous differential equations for the content of radioactivity in each compartment and excreta were solved with the Runge-Kutta method. The results of the calculation of wound, QNZ NF-��B inhibitor whole-body or specific organ retention and daily urinary or faecal excretion rate of some selected elements will be useful for the interpretation of bioassay data and dose assessment for cases of wound contamination.”
“Most endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS) develop recurrent disease at pelvis and lung. Recurrent ESS in the cecum causing intussusception is a rare but emergent phenomenon.

After initial surgical treatment in 1997, a 41-year-old female developed recurrent

ESS in the cecum causing ileo-colic intussusception in 2008, which were operated with right hemicolectomy. The patient was then treated with progestin for 2 years to date. She has since been disease-free.

This case report emphasizes the importance of long-term follow-up and initial surgical treatment of ESS and suggests systemic hormonal therapy in case of recurrence.”
“Composites of isotactic polypropylene with various contents of white clay or titanium dioxide TiO2 were prepared by extrusion molding. The extruded composites were melt-pressed at two different temperatures, and, thereafter, either slowly cooled, or quenched to room temperatures. It is shown that the structure of all the samples, as revealed by wide-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), depends on the processing conditions.

J Appl Polym Sci 114: 1426-1434, 2009″
“Background: Rupture

J Appl Polym Sci 114: 1426-1434, 2009″
“Background: Rupture of a saccular intracranial aneurysm (SIA) causes thunderclap headache but it remains unclear whether headache in general and migraine in particular are more prevalent in patients with unruptured SIA.

Methods: In a prospective case-control study 199 consecutive patients with SIA (103 females and 96 males, mean age: 43.2 years) received a semistructured face to face interview focusing on past headaches. All were admitted

to hospital mostly because of rupture (177) or for unruptured aneurysm (22). In parallel we interviewed 194 blood donors (86 females, 108 males, mean age: 38.4 years). Diagnoses were made according to the International Headache Society criteria. Aneurysms were diagnosed by conventional cerebral angiography.

Results: During the year before rupture, 124 (62.3%) had one or more types of headache. These headaches included: migraine without aura (MO): 78 (39.2%), migraine with aura (MA): 2 (1%), probable migraine (PM): 4 (2%), tension-type headache (TTH): 39 (19.6%), cluster headache (CH): 2 (1%), posttraumatic headaches (PH): 2 (1%). 1-year prevalence of headaches in controls

was 32.5% (63 patients out of 194), they included: TTH: 45 (23.1%), MO: 17 (8.8%), PH: 1(0.5%). Only the prevalence of MO was significantly higher in patients with SIA (OR 6.7, 95% CI 3.8-11.9, p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Unruptured SIA cause a marked increase in the prevalence of migraine without aura but not in the prevalence of other types of headache.”
“Background: Accurate and practical malaria diagnostics, such as immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), HIF-1�� pathway have the potential to avert unnecessary treatments and save lives. Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) represent a potentially valuable human resource for expanding this technology to where it is most needed, remote rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa with limited health facilities

and personnel. This study reports on a training programme for CHWs to incorporate RDTs into their management strategy for febrile children in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a tropical African setting ravaged by human conflict.

Methods: TPX-0005 chemical structure Prospective cohort study, satisfaction questionnaire and decision analysis.

Results: Twelve CHWs were trained to safely and accurately perform and interpret RDTs, then successfully implemented rapid diagnostic testing in their remote community in a cohort of 357 febrile children. CHWs were uniformly positive in evaluating RDTs for their utility and ease of use. However, high malaria prevalence in this cohort (93% by RDTs, 88% by light microscopy) limited the cost-effectiveness of RDTs compared to presumptive treatment of all febrile children, as evidenced by findings from a simplified decision analysis.

Conclusions: CHWs can safely and effectively use RDTs in their management of febrile children; however, cost-effectiveness of RDTs is limited in zones of high malaria prevalence.