In the lungs, this

In the lungs, this this website is characterized by the production of a thickened dehydrated mucus layer, which provides an environment

suitable for colonization by pathogens [4]. Although many species are able to colonize the CF lung, including Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae, P. aeruginosa will eventually dominate in the majority of patients. Initial P. aeruginosa infections may be cleared by antibiotics, however biofilm formation allows persistence that is associated with antibiotic resistance and chronic infection [5]. Strains of P. aeruginosa associated with CF infections are likely to contain and/or express genes that confer functional traits allowing initial colonization of the CF lung mucosa as well as the ability to out-compete other pathogens. Contrary to the dogma that CF patients acquire unique P. aeruginosa from an environmental source [6], it has now become evident that person-to-person

transmissible strains may circulate within CF clinics [7–11]. Such strains have been found in the United Kingdom and see more Europe (Manchester epidemic strain [MA], Liverpool epidemic strain [LES] [10, 11] and Clone C [12]), as well as Canada [13] and Australia (Australian epidemic strain 1 [AES-1] [7]). Increasing evidence suggests that transmission between patients occurs via a cough-associated aerosol route [14, 15]. The majority of epidemic strains display evidence of increased virulence in CF patients [16] and transmission to patients with non-CF bronchiectasis, or even otherwise healthy relatives, has been detected [17]. Little is known however, about the mechanisms underlying transmissibility and pathogenesis of epidemic P. aeruginosa. Isolates from initial infection tend to be non-mucoid and motile, but over time GBA3 the organism undergoes genotypic and phenotypic changes that promote persistence, including conversion

to mucoidy, loss of motility and reduced type III secretion consistent with biofilm formation [18]. Whole genome sequencing of two clonally related isolates collected from a CF patient 7.5 years apart [18] (early infection and chronic infection) showed loss of function in virulence genes required for O-antigen biosynthesis, type III secretion, twitching motility, exotoxin A regulation, multi-drug Foretinib cell line efflux, phenazine biosynthesis, quorum sensing (QS) and iron acquisition. Horizontal gene transfer and recombination in gene islands, large chromosomal inversions and gene loss are important in P. aeruginosa evolution [19, 20], and phenotypic traits may also be acquired from infecting bacteriophage. P. aeruginosa Clone C carries a plasmid and genomic islands with sequences substantially different from the P. aeruginosa reference clone PAO1 that may confer enhanced colonization and survival [21]. Adaptation by P. aeruginosa to the CF lung is also accelerated by the host immune response and nutrient limitation, including oxidative stress and iron availability, as well as antibiotic challenge.

In fact, Equations 58 and 59 are the same as the classically pred

In fact, Equations 58 and 59 are the same as the classically predicted amount of charges q cl,1 and q cl,2 in C 1 and C 2 in the original system, respectively. If we consider that α j are given by Equation 36, q cl,1 and q cl,2 can be rewritten, after a little evaluation, in the form (64) (65) We illustrated q cl,1 and q cl,2 in Figure 4 as a function of time. To understand the time PCI-34051 research buy behavior of these quantities, it may be worth to recall that complementary functions, q j c (t), and particular solutions, q j p (t), are not associated to the original system but to the firstly transformed system. We can also easily

confirm from similar evaluation that the time click here behavior of

canonical conjugate currents p cl,j are represented in terms of q j c (t), p j c (t), and p j p (t) (see Appendix Appendix 4). Figure 4 Classically predicted amount of charges in capacitors. This illustration represents the time behavior of q cl,1 (thick solid line) and q cl,2 (dashed line) where R 0 = R 1 = R 2 = 0.1, L 0 = L 1 = L 2 = 1, C 1 = 1, C 2 = 1.2, q 1c (0) = q 2c (0) = 0.5, p 1c (0) = p 2c (0) = 0, and δ = 0. The values of are (0,0) (a), (10,4) (b), and (0.5,0.53) see more (c). The definition of quantum fluctuations for any quantum operator in the DSN is given by (66) Using this, we obtain the fluctuations of charges and currents as (67) (68) (69) (70) As we have seen before, the expectation values associated to charges and currents are represented in terms of complementary functions, q j c (t) and p j c (t), and

particular solutions q j p (t) and p j p (t). The amplitude of complementary functions Gefitinib in vivo is determined from the strength of displacements, whereas the particular solutions are determined by the power source (see Equations 19 and 20). However, all of the fluctuations do not involve such solutions. This means that the displacement and the electric power source do not affect to the fluctuations of charges and currents. The uncertainty products between charges and their conjugate currents can be easily identified by means of Equations 67 to 70. For the case of the DN that are given from the limit r 1=r 2→0, we have F 1=F 2=0 and . Then, the uncertainty products become (71) (72) These are the same as the uncertainty products in the number states and are always larger than , preserving the uncertainty principle. Thus, we can conclude that the uncertainty products in the DN are the same as those of the ordinary number states. Evidently, the uncertainty principle is inherent in quantum mechanical context described by canonical variables. The results, Equations 71 and 72 with n 1=n 2=0, are exactly the same as Equations 29 and 30 of [4], respectively. Moreover, for R 1=R 2=R 3→0 (i.e.

No protein bands other than those of 70 and

65 kDa indica

No protein bands other than those of 70 and

65 kDa indicated by asterisks, which might be non-specific, were detected in the hbp35 full length deletion mutant (KDP166), whereas the hbp35 insertion mutant (KDP164), which had an insertion of the ermF-ermAM DNA cassette just upstream of the F110 residue within the HBP35 protein, showed 29-and 27-kDa proteins (Figure 1). We checked independent 18 isolates of KDP164 and 5 isolates of KDP166. All of the isolates showed the same results as shown in Figure 1. The 40-kDa protein appeared as the full length gene product of hbp35, which coincided with results of previous studies [6, 7]. Figure Capmatinib mouse 1 Immunoblot analysis of cell extracts of various P. XMU-MP-1 gingivalis strains with anti-HBP35. Cell extracts (approximately 10 μg protein) of various P. gingivalis strains were analyzed by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions

followed by immunoblotting with anti-HBP35 antibody. Lane 1, 33277 (wild type); lanes 2, 3 and 4, KDP164 (hbp35 insertion mutant); lanes 5, 6 and 7, KDP166 (hbp35 deletion mutant). Asterisks indicate protein bands with molecular masses of 70-and 65-kDa non-specifically recognized by anti-HBP35 antibody. Pigmentation and C646 in vitro gingipain activities of P. gingivalis hbp35 mutants Both full length deletion and insertion P. gingivalis hbp35 mutants formed black pigmented colonies on blood agar plates. No difference was observed in Rgp, Kgp and hemagglutinating activities between the hbp35 mutants and the wild type (data not shown). These results suggest that HBP35 does not influence expression of gingipain-encoding genes. Northern blot analysis of hbp35 To determine whether the hbp35 gene produces multiple transcripts, total RNAs were prepared from the wild type and hbp35 mutants. Northern blot analysis was then carried out with an hbp35 DNA probe that hybridized to

the hbp35 region coding for Q22-P344. The wild type showed a 1.1-kb transcript hybridizing to the hbp35 probe (Additional file 1). In the hbp35 insertion and full length Adenosine triphosphate deletion mutants, there was no 1.1-kb transcript, indicating that the 1.1-kb mRNA was produced from the hbp35 gene. The hbp35 insertion mutant produced transcripts with 1.3-2.2 kb that hybridized to the probe. The ermF probe hybridized to transcripts with similar length in the hbp35 insertion mutant (Additional file 1). Subcellular localization of HBP35 protein In an approach to understand the potential roles of HBP35 proteins with different molecular masses, we fractionated cells of the wild type and the hbp35 insertion mutant into cytoplasm/periplasm, total membrane, and inner and outer membrane fractions. These fractions were subjected to SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis with the anti-HBP35 antibody.

Protein expression was induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyrano

Protein expression was induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), and purification of the three recombinant proteins was achieved through nickel affinity chromatography with the HisTrapTM

HP column. Each purified protein migrated as a single band with the predicted size in SDS-PAGE, of which purity was more than 95% (Figure 1). The specifiCity of the bands was confirmed by using specific antibodies generated against native forms of Prn, Fim2 or Fim3, respectively, in Western blotting (Figure 1). By using this approach, a large amount of proteins was obtained, at approximately 12 mg/L of rPrn, 25 mg/L of rFim2, and 19 mg/L of rFim3. Figure 1 SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis. (A) SDS-PAGE of the purified recombinant proteins. The proteins were electrophoresed on a 10% SDS-PAGE gel under reducing condition and Selleck Inhibitor Library stained by Coomassie blue. Lane 1: Molecular mass marker, the molecular mass Belnacasan in vitro standards are

indicated in kDa on left Selumetinib in vitro side; lane 2: rPrn (10 μg); lane3: rFim2 (10 μg); lane 4: rFim3 (10 μg). (B) Western blotting of the recombinant proteins. Lane 1: Pre-stained molecular mass marker (170 kDa, 130, 100, 70, 55, 40, 35, 25, 15, 10, Fermentas), the molecular mass standards are indicated in kDa on left side; lane 2: rFim2 was detected with mouse anti-Fim2 monoclonal antibodies; lane 3: rFim3 was detected with mouse anti-Fim3 monoclonal antibodies; lane 4: Pre-stained molecular mass marker, the molecular mass standards are indicated in kDa on right side; lane 5: rPrn was detected with mouse anti-Prn monoclonal antibodies; lane 6: Pre-stained molecular mass marker, the molecular mass standards are indicated in kDa on right side. Serum antibody responses

to rPrn, rFim2 and rFim3 In order to examine the antibody responses to rPrn, rFim2 and rFim3, sera of immunized mice were collected two weeks after the second immunization. Titres of serum IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA. Significant IgG antibody responses were observed in the mice immunized Rucaparib with both high and low doses of rPrn, rFim2 or rFim3 when compared to the control group (P < 0.001 for all three proteins) (Figure 2). High levels of IgG antibodies were induced in mice immunized with high doses of the three proteins. However, the differences were not significant when compared to those in mice immunized with low doses (Figure 2). When the same amount of rFim2 and rFim3 was used in immunization, IgG responses appeared to be similar between the two groups (P = 0.056). Figure 2 Antibody responses in immunized and control mice. Two weeks after the second immunization, sera were collected, and IgG antibody titres were determined by ELISA. Results represent the mean antibody titres for five mice per group. An asterisk symbol (*) indicates a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) between immunized and control group.

Acknowledgements This work was financed by Agroscope Liebefeld-Po

Acknowledgements This work was financed by Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux. We thank Vincent O’Reilly for his support on the work with L. gasseri K7. We also would like to thank Dr. M. Casey for his English proof reading of the manuscript. References selleck 1. Metchnikoff E: The prolongation of life New York, Putnam 1908. 2. Cleusix V, Lacroix C, Vollenweider S, Le Blay G: Glycerol induces reuterin production and decreases Escherichia coli population in an in vitro model of colonic fermentation with immobilized human feces. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2008, 63:56–64.CrossRefPubMed 3. Klaenhammer TR, Kullen MJ: Selection and design of probiotics. Int J Food Microbiol 1999, 50:45–57.CrossRefPubMed

4. Picot A, Lacroix C: Encapsulation of bifidobacteria

in whey protein-based microcapsules and survival in simulated gastrointestinal conditions and in yoghurt. Int Dairy J 2004, 14:505–515.CrossRef 5. Alander M, De Smet I, Nollet L, Verstraete W, Von Wright A, Mattila-Sandholm T: The effect of probiotic strains on the microbiota of the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Micobial Ecosystem (SHIME). Int J Food Microbiol 1998, 46:71–79.CrossRef 6. Molly K, Woestyne V, Verstraete W: Development of a FK228 molecular weight 5-step multi-chamber reactor as a simulation of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem. Appl Microbiol SN-38 Biotechnol 1993, 39:254–258.CrossRefPubMed 7. Tir Touil Meddah A, Yazourh A, Avelestat (AZD9668) Desmet I, Risbourg B, Verstraete W, Romond MB: The regulatory effects of whey retentate from Bifidobacteria fermented milk on the microbiota of the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME). J Appl Microbiol 2001, 91:1110–1117.CrossRef 8. Marteau P, Minekus M, Havenaar R, Veld JHJ: Survival of Lactic

Acid Bacteria in a Dynamic Model of the Stomach and Small Intestine: Validation and the Effects of Bile. J Dairy Sci 1997, 80:1031–1037.CrossRefPubMed 9. Sumeri I, Arike L, Adamberg K, Paalme T: Single bioreactor gastrointestinal tract simulator for study of survival of probiotic bacteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2008, 80:317–324.CrossRefPubMed 10. Bogovic-Matijasic B, Rogelj I: Bacteriocinogenic activity of lactobacilli isolated from cheese and baby faeces. Food Technol Biotechnol 1999, 37:93–100. 11. Bergonzelli GE, Blum S, Brussow H, Corthesy-Theulaz I: Probiotics as a treatment strategy for gastrointestinal diseases? Digestion 2005, 72:57–68.CrossRefPubMed 12. Olivares M, Diaz-Ropero MP, Martin R, Rodriguez JM, Xaus J: Antimicrobial potential of four Lactobacillus strains isolated from breast milk. J Appl Microbiol 2006, 101:72–79.CrossRefPubMed 13. Pavlova SI, Kilic AO, Kilic SS, So JS, Nader-Macias ME, Simoes JA, et al.: Genetic diversity of vaginal lactobacilli from women in different countries based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. J Appl Microbiol 2002, 92:451–459.CrossRefPubMed 14.

Garcia-Fuentes M, Alonso MJ: Chitosan-based drug nanocarriers: wh

Garcia-Fuentes M, Alonso MJ: Chitosan-based drug nanocarriers: where do we stand? J Control Release 2012, 161:496–504.CrossRef 3. Agnihotri SA, Mallikarjuna NN, Aminabhavi TM: Recent advances on chitosan-based micro- and nanoparticles in drug delivery. J Control Release 2004, 100:5–28.CrossRef 4. Amidi M, Mastrobattista

E, Jiskoot W, Hennink WE: Chitosan-based delivery systems for protein therapeutics and antigens. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 2010, 62:59–82.CrossRef 5. Mao S, Sun W, Kissel T: Chitosan-based formulations for delivery of DNA and siRNA. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 2010, 62:12–27.CrossRef 6. Graf N, Bielenberg DR, Kolishetti N, Muus C, Banyard J, Farokhzad OC, Lippard SJ: αVβ3 integrin-targeted PLGA-PEG nanoparticles Selleck BB-94 for enhanced anti-tumor

efficacy of a Pt(IV) prodrug. ACS Nano 2012, 6:4530–4539.CrossRef 7. O’Neal DP, Hirsch LR, Halas NJ, Payne JD, West JL: Photo-thermal tumor ablation in mice using near infrared-absorbing nanoparticles. Cancer Lett 2004, 209:171–176.CrossRef 8. Cui F, Li Y, Zhou S, Jia M, Yang X, Yu F, Ye S, Hou Z, Xie L: A comparative in vitro evaluation of self-assembled Selleck Necrostatin-1 PTX-PLA and PTX-MPEG-PLA nanoparticles. Nanoscale Res Lett 2013, 8:301.CrossRef 9. Allen TM: Ligand-targeted therapeutics in anticancer therapy. Nat Rev Cancer 2002, 2:750–763.CrossRef 10. Low PS, Henne WA, Doorneweerd DD: Discovery and development of folic-acid-based receptor targeting for imaging and therapy VX-680 of cancer and inflammatory diseases. Acc Chem Res 2008, 41:120–129.CrossRef 11. Weitman SD, Lark RH, Coney LR, Fort DW, Frasca V, Zurawski VR Jr, Kamen BA: Distribution of the folate receptor GP38 in normal and malignant cell lines and tissues. Cancer Res 1992, 52:3396–3401. 12. Hou Z, Zhan C, Jiang Q, Hu Q, Li L, Chang D, Yang X, Wang Y, Li Y, Ye S, Xie L, Yi Y, Zhang Q: Both FA- and mPEG-conjugated Florfenicol chitosan nanoparticles for targeted cellular uptake and enhanced tumor tissue distribution. Nanoscale Res Lett 2011, 6:563.CrossRef 13. Rijnboutt S, Jansen G, Posthuma G, Hynes JB, Schornagel

JH, Strous GJ: Endocytosis of GPI-linked membrane folate receptor-alpha. J Cell Biol 1996, 132:35–47.CrossRef 14. Mizusawa K, Takaoka Y, Hamachi I: Specific cell surface protein imaging by extended self-assembling fluorescent turn-on nanoprobes. J Am Chem Soc 2012, 134:13386–13395.CrossRef 15. Qiu A, Jansen M, Sakaris A, Min SH, Chattopadhyay S, Tsai E, Sandoval C, Zhao R, Akabas MH, Goldman ID: Identification of an intestinal folate transporter and the molecular basis for hereditary folate malabsorption. Cell 2006, 127:917–928.CrossRef 16. Frei E, Jaffe N, Tattersall MHN, Pitman S, Parker L: New approaches to cancer chemotherapy with methotrexate. N Engl J Med 1975, 292:846–851.CrossRef 17. Matthews DA, Alden RA, Bolin JT, Freer ST, Hamlin R, Xuong N, Kraut J, Poe M, Williams M, Hoogsteen K: Dihydrofolate reductase: x-ray structure of the binary complex with methotrexate. Science 1977, 197:452–455.CrossRef 18.

International variations in hip fracture risk have displayed a no

International variations in hip fracture risk have displayed a north–south gradient [6] which has been linked to the importance of sunlight exposure [22]. A study using national data from France showed substantial GS-7977 in vitro heterogeneity of hip fracture risk within the country, with higher hip fracture risk in the Southern France [23]. Other studies reporting regional differences in hip fracture rates within countries explain the differences by an urban–rural gradient [24]. In a study from Australia, the age-adjusted

incidence of hip fracture was 32% Fosbretabulin mw lower in rural compared to urban residents aged 60 years and above, 26% lower in women [25]. In comparison, the age-adjusted rates in women aged 65 years and above were 21% lower in Harstad than in the more urbanized capitol Oslo [8]. Unfortunately, with the registry data available, we do not have explanation for the indicated urban–rural difference, but another Norwegian study reported higher bone mineral density levels in rural versus urban dwellers at the hip [26], one factor which may explain differences in fracture risk. In a study by Ringsberg et al. [27], urban subjects had significantly poorer balance

compared with their rural counterparts, a difference which increased with increasing age, affected gait performance and buy GDC 0032 risk of falls. With an extensive prevention program running in Harstad between 1988 and 1993 [18, 19] and part of this program still integrated in the community health service, this may also explain the differences in fracture rates between Harstad and Oslo. It could furthermore be expected Bumetanide that the extensive prevention program might have resulted in lower fracture rates especially in the first years after 1994. However, comparison of the two periods, 1994–1996 and 2006–2008, indicated no significant change in the age-adjusted incidence rates in any of the sexes during the time of the study. Interestingly, this stability of age-adjusted incidence rates is in accordance

with data from Oslo [8] and reports from several other countries including Finland, Denmark, Norway, Switzerland, Canada, US and Australia [10, 12–15, 28]. There are studies reporting increasing numbers of hip fracture rates in women and men in Germany and Austria [29, 30], in men in Switzerland [28], in the oldest age groups in Swedish [31] and Swiss [32] women. Conflicting results are also reported within countries where, for example, a recent paper from the Australian Capital Territory reported significant declining hip fracture rates after 2001 in women [13], while other data from Australia indicate no change in incidence [33]. The Australian report suggests that the declining hip fracture rates may be explained by increased use of anti-osteoporotic treatments [13].

From the analysis of the 55Mn HFI values, the oxidation state com

From the analysis of the 55Mn HFI values, the oxidation state compositions of the OEC could be deduced: S0 3Mn(III) 1Mn(IV); S1 2Mn(III) 2Mn(IV); S2 1Mn(III) 3Mn(IV). Furthermore,

values for the exchange couplings were obtained and an assignment of the oxidation states to individual Mn ions in the cluster was proposed, see Fig. 6 (Kulik et al. 2007). Fig. 6 Top: Field-swept echo detected EPR spectrum at Q-band of the S2-state of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in Photosystem II (BBY Angiogenesis inhibitor particles from spinach). The simulation has been obtained with four axial 55Mn HFI tensors and an anisotropic g-tensor (Kulik et al. 2005, 2007). Bottom: 55Mn ENDOR spectra both at Q-band and X-band (black) together with their simulations (red lines) using four different 55Mn hf tensors (colored lines). Note the better nuclear Zeeman resolution at Q-band. The inset in the upper panel shows the assignment of oxidation

states to the four Mn ions and the exchange coupling J among these ions Spin-polarized RP \( P_700^ \bullet + A_1^ \bullet – \) in plant Photosystem I In plant Photosystem I (PSI), the photosynthetic charge separation is triggered by the light absorption of the primary electron donor P 700. From its excited state P*, the electron is transferred through intermediate acceptors to the electron acceptor A1 (vitamin K1). As a result of the fast charge separation, the RP \( P_700^ \bullet + A_1^ \bullet – \) is created in a spin-correlated state that can be observed by EPR and ENDOR techniques. The system of two interacting electron spins has four AZD5582 purchase eigenstates, which can be ADAMTS5 described in terms of singlet and triplet states. Since spin multiplicity is conserved during fast electron transfer, the system is initially in the singlet state. In the course of spin learn more evolution also the triplet sublevels become populated. The general theory of ESE and ENDOR in polarized RPs is rather complicated (Fursmann et al. 2002; Poluektov et al. 2005). However, the situation is simplified in the weak coupling case, when the difference of the Larmor frequencies of two electron

spins Δω is much larger than the strength of the exchange and magnetic dipolar interactions between these spins. The system approaches this situation with increasing external magnetic field, since Δω increases due to the difference in g-factors of the radicals in the RP. This was utilized in pulse ENDOR studies of the laser flash generated spin-polarized RP \( P_700^ \bullet + A_1^ \bullet – \) (Fursmann et al. 2002; Epel et al. 2006). The Q-band transient EPR spectrum of this RP is shown in the top panel of Fig. 7. The numerical simulation shows that this spectrum is composed of the contributions of the signals of \( P_700^ \bullet + \) and \( A_1^ \bullet – \), each of which is spin polarized.

pre 1 = 60 min before swimming, pre 2 = 2 min before swimming the

pre 1 = 60 min selleckchem before swimming, pre 2 = 2 min before swimming the first 100

m, I and III 2 min after both 100 m swimming, II and IV 8 min after both 100 m swimming, * Indicates a significant (p < 0.05) difference compared to PL. Bicarbonate, base excess There were significantly greater values in blood bicarbonate and base excess values in SB and in PFT�� molecular weight BA + SB at every measurement point (except pre 1) compared to the PL values (Figures 5A and 5B). Figure 5 Blood bicarbonate and base excess values (mean ± SD) in the supplemented groups in different measurement time points. A) Blood bicarbonate (B-Bicarbonate) and B) base excess (B-Base excess) values (mean ± SD) in the supplemented groups in different measurement time points, PL = placebo, SB = sodium bicarbonate, BA + PL = beta-alanine and placebo, BA + SB = beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate, pre 1 = 60 min before swimming, pre 2 = 2 min before swimming the first 100 m, I and III 2 min after both 100 m swimming, II and IV 8 min after both 100 m swimming, * Indicates a significant (p < 0.05) difference compared to PL. Discussion Main results The primary findings from this

investigation were GANT61 cell line that there was a significantly less attenuation in swim time for the second 100 m sprint following SB supplementation. However, co-supplementation of SB with BA did not add any further benefit. Swim times The subjects that ingested SB swam the second 100-m sprint 1.5 s (2.4%) faster Tacrolimus (FK506) compared to the PL trial. This improvement confirms the results previously reported by Mero et al. [23], who used a similar testing protocol and

reported a 0.6 s (p < 0.05) improvement in subjects ingesting SB. Also in support of the present results, Gao et al. [4], demonstrated that pre – exercise supplementation with SB does not improve the first sprint but may be beneficial in later repetitions. In swimming races, an improvement of 1.5 s in performance may have a decisive effect on success in the final competition. During swimming competitions swimmers are often required to perform multiple heats during one day [32, 33]. For example, in the 2012 London Olympics a female swimmer came in first in semifinals 200-m free style and then won the gold medal 15 min later in the 100-m backstroke. In our study the combined SB and BA supplementation did not improve swimming times. Recently Hobson et al. [26] showed that chronic BA and acute SB supplementation improved 2000 m rowing performance and they concluded that the addition of acute SB to chronic BA supplementation may further enhance rowing performance. They used a BA dose of 6.4 g per day during four weeks. In our study we used only 4.8 g per day for four weeks. Muscle carnosine is important in buffering and the muscle content is dependent on BA ingestion [15] it would be interesting to use either bigger doses and/or longer supplementation periods in future studies.

Clin Exp Metastasis 2008,25(2):97–108 PubMedCrossRef 26 Martin T

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