135-140 were determined using quantitative real time RT-PCR To t

135-140 were determined using quantitative real time RT-PCR. To this end, an early log

phase culture of the wildtype was divided. To one part free malic acid (25 mM final concentration) was added, the other part remained untreated. RNA was sampled prior to splitting the culture and after two hours. All tested genes, except mleR itself, showed enhanced transcription in the presence of malic acid compared to time zero (Figure 5). Figure 5 Induction of the mle locus by low pH and malate. The transcription level was determined by quantitative real time RT-PCR of the genes Smu.135-140. Results are presented as fold change after a two hours treatment with 0 or 25 mM L-malate and compared to time zero. White bars, 0 mM free malic acid; Red bars, 25 mM free malic acid. Influence of L-malate and MleR on growth Since L-malate does not serve as a catabolite facilitating growth of S. mutans we https://www.selleckchem.com/products/psi-7977-gs-7977.html were interested to see how energy gain and pH maintenance due to MLF affect its ability to grow in an acidic environment. To study this, we used BM medium supplemented with 1% (w/v) glucose (pH adjusted to 6.0) with or without

supplementation of L-malate. In the absence of L-malate, there was no difference in growth of the wildtype and the ΔmleR mutant strain. Both strains entered the stationary phase after 6-7 hours at an external pH of about 4.2 and reached a final OD600 of about 0.41 (Figure 6A). Inoculation of neutral BMG with this culture (pH 7.4) resulted in an optical density of ~ 1.0 for both strains, ensuring that the buy Sapanisertib pH and not nutrient limitation were the determinant for entering the stationary phase at acidic conditions. Addition of L-malate

to the acidified culture medium GDC 0032 in vitro facilitated pH maintenance and further growth of both cultures (Figure 6A). The presence of L-malate resulted in a substantially higher optical density of the wild type compared to the mleR knockout strain. Both strains were capable of carrying out MLF, as monitored by the L-malate concentration in the supernatant (Figure 6B), but the mutant to a much smaller degree than the wildtype. Further Bumetanide on significant internalisation/decarboxylation of L-malate started when the external pH dropped below 5, confirming the luciferase reporter data which had shown that the malolactic fermentation system is only activated at low pH. Figure 6 Influence of L-malate and mleR on the growth of S. mutans. Cell were inoculated in acidified BMG (pH 6.0) medium under anaerobic conditions. A: Growth (OD600) of wildtype (black) and ΔmleR mutant (grey) in the absence (open symbols) or presence (filled symbols) of L-malate. B: pH and malate concentration of the supernatant of wildtype and ΔmleR mutant cultures grown in the presence of malate. Closed circle, pH of wildtype; Closed square, pH of the ΔmleR mutant; Open circle, malate concentration of wildtype; Open square, malate concentration of the ΔmleR mutant. Influence of L-malate and mleR on the ability of S.

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