, 1994; Cavagna et al , 2011), they are regularly

, 1994; Cavagna et al., 2011), they are regularly MG132 proteasome of submaximal intensity and are thus not discussed here. Consequently, to the best of our knowledge, the relationships between different types of locomotion forms have not been investigated. From our point of view, it is crucial to find out whether those performances have specific qualities that should be tested and trained specifically, or whether we should observe a ��universal�� linear speed quality, regardless to different locomotion forms and movement specifics (forward, backward, lateral, bipedal, quadrupedal, etc.). This issue is particularly important in tactical activities, such as physically trained military, law enforcement, fire and rescue, protective services, and other emergency services for which those abilities are highly relevant (Faff and Korneta, 2000; Sekulic et al.

, 2006b). Thus, the purpose of our study was to determine the interrelationships between various linear maximal short-distance performances, that consist of different movement patterns (running, lateral shuffle [running], backward running and three types of specific quadrupedal locomotion). We hypothesized that there are no strong relationships between very different forms of maximal locomotion irrespectively of their similar physiological background (i.e. ATP-CP energetic requirements). Material and Methods Participants Forty-two healthy male physical education students (mean �� SD: age: 19.8 �� 1.3 years; body mass: 80.4 �� 9.6 kg; body height, 1.84 �� 0.07 m) participated in the present study.

The participants had various sports backgrounds, which included team sports (soccer, handball, basketball), racquet sports, combat sports and dance sports. All of the subjects were involved in systematic sports training for at least five years. To avoid the possible negative effect of fatigue on the test procedure, the subjects were requested not to perform strenuous exercises 48 hours prior to testing and between the testing sessions. Measures The variables in this study included six diverse linear short-distance performances of maximal intensity (three bipedal and three quadrupedal locomotions). Our objective was to obtain a similar physiological background for all of the tests. Therefore, all six tests were maximal with regard to their intensity and brevity (4�C10 s), and the straight-line distances were 18 and 30 m depending on the movement efficacy of the locomotion form.

Because of the higher movement-efficacy, the forward and backward running tests were performed over the longer distances in comparison to other tests. The subjects executed maximal performance AV-951 without a signal to avoid the possible effects of reaction time of final achievement. The subjects performed three trials of each test (from a stationary start), with at least 3 min of rest between all trials and tests. The best performance was used for further analysis.

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