1B and C) Five days after peptide immunization, the frequency of

1B and C). Five days after peptide immunization, the frequency of CD8+ tetramer+ T cells in the spleen and LN of immunized mice had contracted >90% from their frequency at day 3 (Fig. 1B and C). However, given the modest expansion observed at day 3, this contraction resulted in significantly fewer CD8+ tetramer+ T cells in the LN and spleens of immunized mice compared with non-immunized mice. Interestingly, among those cells that remained at day 5, CFSE levels were moderate to high, with most cells in the spleen having divided only once or not at all. In sharp contrast, the response of CD8+ T cells activated after immunization

with radiation-attenuated P. yoelii sporozoites display robust proliferation at day 3 that results Poziotinib manufacturer in accumulation of large numbers of CFSElo T cells at day 5 (Fig. 1D). The lack of accumulation of CFSE cells among the tetramer+ Ceritinib price population demonstrates that unlabeled endogenous T cells (non-TCR-Tg) are not recruited into the response to soluble peptide immunization at a detectable

level. Increasing the dose of peptide induced more intense proliferation at day 3 (Fig. 1A), but did not result in an increased population size at day 5 (data not shown). Moreover, emulsifying the peptide in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA) to create an antigen depot and extend antigen presentation did not improve T-cell survival, regardless of peptide dose (data not shown). It is noteworthy that aborted T-cell responses may not be due

to a premature clearance of peptide, as we determined that TCR-Tg cells are activated even if transferred 4 days after immunization with peptide (Fig. 1E), indicating that this epitope is presented for at least 4 days post-immunization. This indicates that premature loss of antigen due to clearance from circulation or degradation was not likely the reason for the development of poor T-cell responses to peptide. Restriction of peptide presentation due to killing of professional APC by large numbers of activated CD8+ T cells could introduce self-regulatory mechanisms that limit T-cell expansion, though we do not believe this is the root of the peptide immunization failure. When transferring low numbers of TCR-Tg CD8+ T cells (Supporting Information Fig. 1) or when measuring endogenous responses in the Fossariinae absence of Tg cells (data not shown), we still fail to detect T-cell expansion, suggesting that the elimination of peptide-presenting APC by a small number of T cells is not likely a limiting factor. Given the prominent and critical role of innate signaling to support T-cell priming in vivo20, we evaluated the impact of TLR signaling on the survival of CD8+ T cells activated by soluble peptide in vivo. For these purposes, we immunized mice with peptide and different TLR agonists and evaluated the CD8+ T-cell responses 3 and 5 days post-immunization.

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