208; von Benda-Beckmann and von Benda-Beckmann 2007) or the effects
of large scale, government sponsored transmigration programs as that of Indonesia (Murray Li 2007, p. 259; Sodhi et al. 2009; Rist et al. 2010). Concepts of “indigenous” space then often clash with the concept of citizenship in a young nation state where anyone can settle wherever they like (Murray Li 2007, pp. 114–116). What’s more, displaced communities argue that their identities and associated rights should not be dependent on fixed associations with a certain territory, but should be portable (Murray Li 2007, p. 173). A further problem with essentialised understandings of “indigenous and local communities” is that as legal classifications and categories they GW-572016 supplier force communities to live up to the expectations of outsiders, especially of lawyers and administrators, with regards to the “authenticity” of
their “traditional lifestyles”. Such categories favour “tribal” over urban based knowledge PF-3084014 nmr and “indigenous” knowledge over tradition based forms of knowledge related to court cultures and elites, to a country’s majority population or to migrant communities (Antons 2008, p. 295). All too often, villagers and forest dwellers who attempt to improve their situation are subsequently seen as no longer matching the expectations with regards to the authenticity of their “traditional lifestyles”. Forsyth and Walker (2008, pp. 213–214) explain how in Thailand, “traditional” village life may become associated with lack of education, electricity or public health in the case of one Karen village, whereas another Karen village with road access and market integration is seen as already too “modernised”. Different from settler societies such as Australia, New Zealand, the United
States and Canada, much of traditional knowledge in Asia may also reside in fairly large majority population groups or even at the national level. Examples from traditional medicine are Indian Ayurveda, Chinese or Thai traditional medicine and Indonesian jamu, which is originally associated PI3K inhibitor with the main island of Java, but has meanwhile become a term of the national language Bahasa Indonesia referring to Indonesian traditional medicine more generally (Antons 2005; Antons and Antons-Sutanto 2009). As a consequence, many Asian governments for many years have expressed Androgen Receptor Antagonist mouse reservations about the applicability of the term “indigenous people” in Asia, a concept which in their views was more appropriately used in connection with the situation in Anglo-American settler colonies (Kingsbury 1999; Persoon 2009; Benjamin 2002, pp. 14–15; Murray Li 2000). The difference came to expression during the deliberations in the WIPO IGC about a voluntary fund established to support the participation of accredited local and indigenous communities in the IGC debates (Antons 2007, pp. 5–6).