A previous study of our group also

suggested that alterat

A previous study of our group also

suggested that alterations in early periods after birth could be involved in behavioral deficits in adulthood (Moreira et al., 2010). The exact mechanism involved in the long-term effects of KA-induced seizures on behavioral performance in adulthood is still unknown, but appears to involve impairment of the long-term potentiation, enhanced long-term depression and reduction on synaptic proteins levels (Cognato et al., 2010, Cornejo et al., 2007 and Sun et al., 2009). Apparently, astrogliosis AZD5363 order is not persistent up to adulthood in this model (Cognato et al., 2010). The early periods of brain development are of great relevance and determine adequate brain function late in lifespan. Our study indicates that a single convulsive event in early life could induce short-term alterations in relevant parameters involved in the homeostasis of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus, which could be involved in the

behavioral alterations in adulthood animals. Our findings can contribute to better understand the role of glutamate transporters in seizures during childhood. From clinical point of view, our data suggest that interventions on the glutamatergic system during seizures in children may be relevant for prevention of brain impairment in adulthood. This work was support by CAPES, FAPERGS, INCT.EN-CNPq/INCT and IBN.Net FINEP/FADESP (Proc. No. 01.06.0842-00). Special thanks to Jocemar Ilha and Henrique Beck Biehl for the support. None of the authors has any conflict of interest to disclose. “
“Monoamine transporters RAD001 solubility dmso for serotonin (SERT), norepinephrine (NET) and dopamine (DAT) belong to the family of Na+/Cl−-dependent neurotransmitter transporters and remove their substrates to end synaptic transmission (Kristensen et al., 2011). Apart from this physiological role, these transporters

are the targets of illicit drugs like cocaine or amphetamines (Rothman and Baumann, 2003). Amphetamines lead to a reverse action of all of these transporters and to a number of other intracellular effects which first actively increase the concentration of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft (Sitte and Freissmuth, 2010). In contrast, cocaine raises the synaptic concentration of monoamines by inhibiting the activity of these transporters. Both classes of compounds are sold on the street market for illicit drugs at the risk of the users because both the quality and identity of the purchased drugs are without any control. This situation is alleviated by the government-supported Viennese drug prevention project ‘checkit! Check your drugs’, which offers cost-free and anonymous analyses of drugs. Thereby drug consumers gain information about the contents of their drug as well as possible risks of those compounds. Importantly and often to the great surprise of the user, the purchased drug does not contain the compound under the name it was sold.

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