According to our results, the gallic acid was encapsulated by lyophilization in matrices of chitosan, beta-cyclodextrin and xanthan. The encapsulated gallic acid showed no loss of antioxidant capacity and different characteristics from the pure gallic acid confirming the techniques used. With the chitosan matrix, a higher encapsulation efficiency, and capsules with characteristic shape were obtained.
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“Two new rearranged patchoulane sesquiterpene glycosides, 3 alpha-hydroxypatchoulol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 15-hydroxypatchoulol 15-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2) together with rubusoside, a known diterpene glycoside, were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole plant of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Selleck MLN2238 Benth. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis.”
“Objective: The fourth ventricle encompasses many vital structures including the brainstem as its floor and the cerebellum as its lateral wall and roof. Therefore, lesions affecting the fourth ventricle may present as cerebellar or brainstem manifestations. Herein, we presented our experience in the diagnosis of disorders affecting the fourth ventricle during the past 15 years.
Study Design: Retrospective
Setting: University hospital.
Subjects: From September 1995 to August 2010, 24,838 patients with vertigo/dizziness visited the ALK inhibitor clinic. Of them, 13 patients ATM/ATR cancer (0.5%) had tumor/stroke affecting the fourth ventricle.
Main Outcome Measures: All patients underwent a battery of audiovestibular function test.
Results: All patients had vertigo (100%) and then ataxia (92%) and nausea/vomiting (85%). Eight patients (68%) displayed persistent nystagmus. Most (> 75%) patients showed central signs in electronystagmographic recordings and abnormal caloric coupled with visual suppression test. Three
patients underwent both ocular and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential tests, and abnormal results were noted in all 3 patients indicating a brainstem involvement. However, magnetic resonance imaging failed to demonstrate brainstem lesion in these 3 patients. Final diagnoses consisted of the following: cavernoma, n (-) 3; metastatic cancer, n = 3; astrocytoma, n = 2; meningioma, n = 2; epidermoid cyst, n = 1; ependymoma, n = 1; and lymphoma, n = 1. The prognosis was poor as 10 patients (77%) died within 2 years.
Conclusion: When a vertiginous patient displayed ataxia, persistent vomiting, and persistent nystagmus, lesion affecting the fourth ventricle should be kept in mind because its prognosis is poor. Abnormal results in electronystagmography and in ocular and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials may serve as a supplementary to magnetic resonance imaging to delineate the involvement of the lesion.