after transfection and 61 48 9 48 Since microRNAs regulate

after transfection and 61. 48 9. 48. Since microRNAs regulate ref 1 gene e pression leading to decreased translation, increased degradation of the target message, or both, we e amined the effects of over e pression of miR 204 on Mcl 1 protein e pres sion. In Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the presence of miR 204 mimic, Mcl 1 protein levels decreased, suggesting that miR 204 targets Mcl 1 in pancreatic cancer cells. Our data there fore show that Mcl 1 over e pression in pancreatic cancer cells is due to down regulation of miR 204. miR 204 binds to the Mcl 1 3UTR Our data suggest that over e pression of miR 204 in duces down regulation of Mcl 1 in pancreatic cancer cells. To test if Mcl 1 e pression was being regulated by miR 204, we transfected a fragment of the Mcl 1 3UTR containing the miR 204 binding site in a Renilla Luciferase reporter containing vector into MIA PaCa 2 cells in the presence of miR 204 or scrambled miRNA.

Our Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries data show that over e pression of Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries wild type miR 204 abrogated reporter activity by 40%, suggesting a direct interaction between Mcl 1 and miR 204. To validate bind ing specificity, we assessed reporter activity with a miR 204 Mcl 1 3UTR binding site deletion mutant. In the presence of the deletion mutant, no abrogation of reporter activity was observed, thereby confirming that miR 204 interacts directly with the 3 UTR of Mcl 1 and inhibits the e pression of Mcl 1. Triptolide regulates Mcl 1 and miR 204 e pression in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro We have previously shown that triptolide, a diterpene triepo ide, is effective in causing pancreatic cancer cell death both in vitro and in vivo.

Since Mcl 1 is up regulated in pancreatic cancer and loss of Mcl 1 leads to cell death, we investigated whether triptolide decreases levels of Mcl 1 in these cells. Treatment of MIA PaCa 2 Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and S2 VP10 cells with triptolide showed a time and dose dependent decrease of Mcl 1 protein. In the presence of 50 nM triptolide, decrease in levels of Mcl 1 occurred between 6 12 h in MIA PaCa 2 cells but between 12 24 h in S2 VP10 cells. Correspondingly, triptolide treatment resulted in an increase in miR 204 levels in both MIA PaCa 2 and S2 VP10 cells, 24 h post triptolide treatment. Treatment of cells with the same concentration of triptolide for 24 h did not lead to changes in miR 204 e pression in normal ductal cells.

Taken together, our data show that triptolide treatment in creased miR 204 levels and decreased Mcl 1 levels in vitro. Discussion Resistance to conventional chemotherapy remains a significant obstacle in long term survival of pancreatic cancer patients, Brefeldin_A and the mechanisms of recurrence and resistance remain poorly understood. Recent genome wide research though suggests that Mcl 1 is subject to increased gene copy number across more than two dozen cancer types. E ploiting drug regimens targeting pathways that down regulate Mcl 1 e pression is therefore a current strategy in cancer therapy. Increase in levels of Mcl 1 has been associated with advanced staging in breast, col

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