“Background and objectives Approximately 70% of illicit co

“Background and objectives Approximately 70% of illicit cocaine consumed in the United States is contaminated with levamisole. Most commonly used as a veterinary

antihelminthic agent, levamisole is a known immunomodulating agent. Prolonged use in humans has been associated with cutaneous vasculitis and agranulocytosis. We describe the development of a systemic KU 57788 autoimmune disease associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in cocaine users. This complication appears to be linked to combined cocaine and levamisole exposure.\n\nDesign, setting, participants, & measurements Cases were identified between March 2009 and November 2010 at Massachusetts General Hospital’s ANCA laboratory. Cocaine exposure was identified from patient history in all cases. Medical records were reviewed for clinical presentation and for laboratory and

diagnostic evaluation.\n\nResults Thirty cases of ANCA positivity associated with cocaine ingestion were identified. All had antimyeloperoxidase antibodies and 50% also had antiproteinase 3 antibodies. Complete clinical and laboratory data were available for 18 patients. Arthralgia (83%) and skin lesions (61%) were the most frequent complaints at presentation. Seventy-two percent of patients reported constitutional symptoms, including fever, night sweats, weight loss, or malaise. Four patients had biopsy-proven vasculitis. Two cases of acute kidney injury and three cases of pulmonary hemorrhage occurred. From the entire cohort of 30, two cases were identified during the first 3 months SB203580 research buy of our study period and nine cases presented during the last 3 months.\n\nConclusions We describe an association between the ingestion of levamisole-contaminated cocaine and ANCA-associated systemic autoimmune disease. Our data suggest that this is a potentially life-threatening complication of cocaine use. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 6: 2799-2805, 2011. doi: 10.2215/CJN.03440411″
“Background Femoral artery thrombosis is one of the most common complications

of catheterizations in infants and young children. This study was conducted to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of thrombolytic therapy for femoral artery thrombosis after left cardiac catheterization in children.\n\nMethods P505-15 Thrombolytic therapy with urokinase was carried out in children with femoral artery thrombosis after left cardiac catheterization. Each patient was given a bolus injection of heparin (100 U/kg). A bolus of urokinase (30 000 +/- 100 000 U) was injected intravenously, and then a continuous infusion of 10 000-50 000 U/h was administered. Transcatheter thrombolysis was performed once previous procedures failed.\n\nResults Eight patients (aged (3.1 +/- 2.3) years (8 months to 7 years), body weight (13.1 +/- 4.2) kg (7 to 20 kg)) presented lower limbs ischemia after left cardiac catheterizations was performed. Seven patients accepted thrombolytic therapy with urokinase.

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