“Background: Intravenous injection of mice with attenuated

“Background: Intravenous injection of mice with attenuated Plasmodium berghei sporozoites induces sterile immunity to challenge with viable sporozoites. Non-intravenous routes have been reported to yield poor immunity. Because intravenous immunization has been considered to be unacceptable for large scale vaccination of humans, assessment was made of the results of intradermal immunization of mice with Plasmodium yoelii, a rodent malaria

parasite whose infectivity resembles that of human malaria.

Methods: Mice were immunized with two injections of isolated, radiation-attenuated Caspase inhibitor P. yoelii sporozoites, either by intravenous (IV) or intradermal (ID) inoculation. In an attempt to enhance protective immunogenicity of ID-injections, one group of experimental mice received topical application of an adjuvant, Imiquimod, while another group had their injections accompanied by local “”tape-stripping”" of the skin, a procedure known to disrupt the stratum corneum and activate local immunocytes. Challenge of immunized and non-immunized control mice was by bite of sporozoite-infected mosquitoes. Degree of protection among the various groups of mice was determined by microscopic examination of stained blood smears. Statistical significance of protection

was determined by a one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test.

Results: Two intravenous immunizations produced 94% protection to mosquito bite challenge; intradermal immunization produced 78% protection, while intradermal BX-795 supplier immunization accompanied by “”tape-stripping”" produced 94% protection. There were no statistically significant differences in degree of protective immunity between immunizations done by intravenous versus intradermal injection.

Conclusions: The use of a sub-microlitre syringe for intradermal injections yielded excellent

protective immunity. ID-immunization with large numbers of radiation-attenuated P. yoelii sporozoites led to ACY-738 levels of protective immunity comparable to those achieved by IV-immunization. It remains to be determined whether an adjuvant treatment can be found to substantially reduce the numbers of attenuated sporozoites required to achieve a strong protective immunity with as few doses as possible for possible extension to immunization of humans.”
“P>Biliary reconstruction remains common in postoperative complications after liver transplantation. A systematic search was conducted on the PubMed database and 61 studies of retrospective or prospective institutional data were eligible for this review. The study comprised a total of 14 359 liver transplantations. The overall incidence of biliary stricture was 13%; 12% among deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) patients and 19% among living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) recipients. The overall incidence of biliary leakage was 8.2%, 7.

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