“Background The present study was aimed at assessing the b

“Background The present study was aimed at assessing the behavioural and physiological responsiveness of three children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities to a set of sensory stimuli. Methods Eighteen

items, believed’ by clinicians to be appropriate for routine interventions, were presented to the participants and responsiveness was assessed in terms of: (i) consistent behavioural and electrodermal reactions and (ii) biphasic changes in heart rate. Results Results were twofold. First, all participants showed frequent consistent physiological reactions but rare consistent behavioural ones. Second, all participants showed biphasic changes in heart rate, pointing to the possibility Prexasertib price of different appraisals (novelty and pleasantness) of most of the presented items.

Conclusions Data here presented may have implications for the development and the emotional well-being of individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities in that it suggests that reactions to, and potential appraisals of, sensory stimuli may occur despite the lack of consistent observable behaviours.”
“Due to the wide spectrum of biological activities, Ricolinostat purchase Chamerion angustifolium L. as medicinal plant is used for the production of food supplements. However, it should be kept in mind that quality (biological activity) of the herb depends on its geographic origin, the way of raw material Selleck BI 6727 preparation or extraction and chemotype. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the compositions of volatile, nonvolatile

compounds and antioxidant activities of C. angustifolium grown in Kaunas Botanical Garden after the introduction from different locations in Lithuania. The compositions of fresh and air-dried samples were compared. The profile of volatile compounds was analyzed using headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with GC/MS. trans-2-Hexenal (16.0-55.9% of all volatiles) and trans-anethole (2.6-46.2%) were determined only in the dried samples, while cis-3-hexenol (17.5-68.6%) only in fresh samples. Caryophyllenes (alpha- and beta-) were found in all analyzed samples, contributing together from 2.4% to 52.3% of all volatiles according to the origin and preparation (fresh or dried) of a sample. Total amount of phenolic compounds, total content of flavonoids and radical scavenging activity (using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)) were determined using spectrophotometric assays. The variation of total phenolic compounds content was dependent on the sample origin, moreover, drying reduced amount of phenolics 1.5-3.5 times. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity was in the range of 238.6-557.1 mg/g (expressed in rutin equivalents) in the fresh samples and drastically reduced to 119.9-124.8 mg/g after drying. The qualitative analysis of phenolic compounds in the aqueous methanolic extracts of C angustifolium was performed by means of HPLC with UV detection.

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