By coadministering vaccination (effectiveness of vaccine vs plac

By coadministering vaccination (effectiveness of vaccine vs. placebo RR: 0.28; 95% CI 0.2–0.4) and HBIG (effectiveness of HBIG/vaccine vs. vaccine alone RR: 0.54; 95% CI 0.41–0.73), transmission rates can be reduced to between 0% and 14%. However, 10% of the offspring of HBV carriers become chronic hepatitis B sufferers in early life despite this mainly being because of infection in utero. The most important determinant of prophylaxis failure has been shown to be maternal serum HBV DNA levels. Transmission rates as high as 32%, despite active/passive immunization with vaccine and HBIG have been reported in

infants born to mothers with HBV DNA concentrations >1.1 × 107 IU/mL. ART with HBV activity Gefitinib nmr (lamivudine/emtricitabine, tenofovir) can reduce this risk to a negligible level [178]. Antenatal prevalence of HCV mono-infection ranges from <1 to about 2.5% increasing to 3–50% in coinfection with the wide range reflecting the proportion of women who are injecting drug users or come from high HCV prevalence areas in the cohorts studied [179],[180]. Several meta-analyses and systematic reviews have shown the overall rate of MTCT for HCV approximates 5% (range 2–10%) if the mother is anti-HCV-positive only. Coinfection is associated with a significant increase in HCV

transmission (OR up to 2.82) compared to HCV mono-infection [181-183]. In addition, a higher rate of MTCT is seen in mothers who are coinfected and HCV viraemic compared to those who are coinfected and non-viraemic (OR 2.82) as well as to HCV viraemic but HIV-negative (OR 1.97) selleck kinase inhibitor [181],[182]. Acquisition of infection of HCV is more likely in infants also becoming infected with HIV and vertical transmission of HIV occurs more often Resveratrol from women coinfected with HIV and HCV than from those infected with HIV only (OR 1.82) where a modest association was found

with HCV VL [184]. Numerous studies have shown that the height of the HCV VL correlates with the risk of HCV MTCT and it is likely there is a linear relationship between VL and transmission as for HIV [185],[186]. Invasive obstetric procedures, internal fetal monitoring, prolonged ROMs and female infant sex have also been associated with transmission but breastfeeding and CS do not pose an additional risk in mono-infected mothers [187],[188]. Effective HAART significantly reduces the rate of HCV transmission, possibly by reducing HCV viraemia [188],[189]. No correlation with HCV genotype or interleukin-28 polymorphisms and transmission has been identified [185],[190],[191]. Both intrauterine and intrapartum infection probably occur, but the relative contribution of each is uncertain. However, approximately one-third of neonates are HCV-viraemic at birth suggesting acquisition in utero [192]. 6.2.

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