(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Mitochondria are dynamic organelles able to vary their morphology between elongated interconnected mitochondrial networks and fragmented disconnected arrays, through events of mitochondrial fusion and fission, respectively. These events allow the transmission of signaling messengers and exchange of metabolites within the cell. They have also been implicated in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, metabolism, apoptosis, and autophagy. Although the majority of these studies have been confined to noncardiac cells, emerging evidence suggests that changes in mitochondrial morphology could participate in cardiac
development, the response to ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, and diabetes mellitus. In this article, we review how the mitochondrial dynamics are altered in different Fer-1 cardiac pathologies, with special emphasis on heart failure, Ro-3306 in vitro and how this knowledge may provide new therapeutic targets for treating cardiovascular diseases. Full English text available from: www.revespcardiol.org (C) 2011 Sociedad Espanola de Cardiologia. Published
by Elsevier Espana, SI. All rights reserved.”
“In this paper, the response mechanism of sewage sludge exposed to (60)Co gamma irradiation at a dose of 0-25 kGy was investigated. Results showed that gamma irradiation could disintegrate sludge flocs and release proteins, polysaccharides and extracellular enzymes into the bulk solution. The maximum oxygen uptake rate decreased by 58%, and 99% of the culturable p38 MAP Kinase pathway bacteria were inactivated at 25 kGy. However, the tested protease, superoxide dismutase and catalase showed slight inactivation during irradiation treatment. The efficiency of sludge solubilization reached around 6.5% with a dose of 25 kGy. Nitrate in the supernatant decreased rapidly to nearly zero after gamma irradiation which may have been due to the conversion of nitrate into N(2) or N(2)O gases through reductive reactions by hydrated electrons. Ammonium was the main inorganic nitrogen product. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Adipocytes undergo adipocyte stress in the excessive
presence of lipid. Adipocyte stress accompanies the typical signs of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress: unfolded protein response and overexpression of molecular chaperones. Apoptotic induction in adipocytes is known as a good strategy for treating obesity. The drug “”tunicamycin”" was tested for its therapeutic potential in inducing apoptosis on differentiating adipocytes of 3T3-L1. When the 3T3-L1 cells, stimulated for adipogenesis, were treated with tunicamycin, they showed typical ER stress symptoms. Despite progression in ER stress, however, the differentiated 3T3-L1 hardly proceeded to apoptosis based on the CHOP protein expression and FACS analysis. This is very different from C2C12, the myogenic counterpart of 3T3-L1, which showed significant apoptosis along with ER stress.