Conclusion Epidemiology can contribute to resolution of several k

Conclusion Epidemiology can contribute to resolution of several key issues. More generally speaking, the epidemiological selleck kinase inhibitor methodology is a prerequisite for our knowledge about how frequent mental disorders are in different countries, regions, and settings (primary care, schools, hospitals) and how they vary with time and with other individual and social and cultural characteristics. Epidemiology is, from this perspective, important for public health, notably the planning and harmonizing of health care components in the European Community, for example. Epidemiology

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is also essential for basic and applied research questions. Clinical and laboratory research can never answer some questions because of their specific selection effect of patients, which usually includes a disproportionally high number of more severe complex cases. Needless to say, such selection effects can modify

the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical results and may lead to erroneous conclusions about the effectiveness of one particular intervention or the mechanisms involved. This is particularly clear for preventive programs. For instance, we cannot simply use data from university hospitals, which frequently treat the most complicated cases, for designing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical such programs.23 Perhaps the most fascinating use of epidemiology lies, however, in the field of causal epidemiology, ie, the identification of the complex interactions between the various pathogenic factors that appear to be responsible Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for

most forms of mental disorders. Current state-of-the-art research on mental disorders suggests that the onset – as well as the whole illness progression – of most forms of mental disorders, can best be described by a disorderspecific vulnerability stress model. Given vulnerabilities – either genetically transmitted or learned by socialization – come together or interact with specific triggers, frequently summarized under various stress models leading to the development of the disorder. In Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical this respect, epidemiology offers several methods for specifically identifying these critical interactions, such as familial genetic methods and more complex statistical manipulations (multivariate, discrete survival models) that require large and unbiased representative data sets. Despite methodological limitations, lifetime prevalence rates of Drug_discovery PD are remarkably consistent across community studies and across cultural, racial, and ethnic boundaries. The exception of higher rates in the NCS may relate to differences in interview method and the much lower rates in Taiwan, where lower rates were reported for several disorders. Cross-nationally, PD is consistently associated with substantial levels of occupational impairment and is more common among women than men. PD is highly comorbid with agoraphobia and major depression. In contrast to PD, the epidemiological data on agoraphobia show U0126 MEK inhibitor considerable variation in rates across studies and cross-culturally.

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