CrossRefPubMed 37. Vogler AJ, Keys CE, Allender C, Bailey PF-02341066 solubility dmso I, Girard J, Pearson T, Smith KL, Wagner DM, Keim P: Mutations, mutation rates, and evolution at the hypervariable VNTR loci of Yersinia pestis. Mutat Res-Fund Mol M 2007,616(1–2):145–158.CrossRef 38. Lipsitch M: Microbiology – Bacterial population genetics and disease. Science 2001,292(5514):59–60.CrossRefPubMed Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions All authors have reviewed and approved the final version of
the paper. HKG designed the study, collected and processed the samples, conducted the data analysis and interpretation, and wrote the paper. BS assisted in processing the tick samples. SRT helped design the study, collect samples, and write the paper.”
“Background Methanogenic Archaea (methanogens) occupy a distinct position in phylogeny, ecology, and physiology. Occupying much of the phylum Euryarchaeota, and widespread in anaerobic environments, these organisms produce methane as the product of energy-generating metabolism . Hydrogenotrophic methanogens specialize in the use of H2 as electron donor to reduce CO2 to methane. The pathways of methanogenesis are well characterized and the proteins that catalyze steps in the pathways
are known. We are engaged in a long-term effort to understand regulatory networks selleck chemicals in hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Our studies focus on Methanococcus maripaludis, a model species with tractable laboratory growth characteristics and facile genetic tools. Previous studies in M. maripaludis have begun to reveal both mechanisms of regulation and global patterns of gene expression. Many of these studies have concentrated on the effects of certain nutrient limitations. For example, at the mechanistic Immune system level, transcription of genes encoding selleck compound nitrogen assimilation functions is governed by a repressor, NrpR, which is found in many
Euryarchaeota as well as certain Bacteria and mediates the organism’s response to nitrogen limitation [2–4]. However, a global assessment of the response to nitrogen limitation has not previously been conducted in hydrogenotrophic methanogens. At the global level, our previous studies have addressed the effects on the transcriptome of H2-limitation, phosphate-limitation, and leucine-limitation [5, 6]. The effects of these nutrient limitations at the proteome level have not previously been studied. We have also determined the effects on the transcriptome and proteome of a mutation in a hydrogenase gene [7, 8]. Here we focus on the effects of certain nutrient limitations on the proteome of M. maripaludis. We report on the effect of limiting H2, the electron donor of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, and of limiting basic nutrients of biosynthesis: nitrogen and phosphate.