Due ionizing radiations oncogenic impact on children with RB1 mut

Due ionizing radiations oncogenic impact on children with RB1 mutations, CT imaging is used only when MRI is not available (82). In high-risk patients, imaging is coupled with lumbar puncture and bone marrow aspiration biopsy. Determinations of metastatic risk are typically based on clinical and histopathologic check details staging of the enucleated eye [83] and [84]. However, fewer eyes are being enucleated because of chemoreduction with focal therapy consolidation and the recent use of ophthalmic arterial chemotherapy for intraocular disease. Both these techniques likely result in downstaging, in which histopathologic markers for metastasis may disappear, leaving only

clinical staging [84], [85] and [86]. Therefore, before plaque therapy, the ABS-OOTF recommends (Level 2 Consensus) that children with risk of extraocular Rb undergo systemic staging. Communication between the radiation oncologist, ophthalmic oncologist, and medical physicist

is critical for any successful brachytherapy program (Level Gemcitabine clinical trial 2 Consensus). To facilitate this communication, a treatment form and fundus diagram should be available to all participating specialists. It should be made part of the radiation oncology medical record and should be available to the surgeon in the operating room. 1. The treatment form contains demographic identifying information about the patient, laterality of the involved eye, the largest basal dimension of the tumor, when treatment is scheduled, and contact information for the treatment by eye cancer specialists. Each tumor should be staged according to the latest AJCC or equivalent Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) staging system (currently the 7th edition) [87] and [88]. The medical physicist transfers this information to a computerized treatment planning system. Although described by the joint AAPM/ABS TG-129 report, this process also requires a determination of Fossariinae the radionuclide, prescription dose, and dose rate. For those centers using radioactive seeds, there must also be seed selection and orientation. The ABS-OOTF

recommends that all centers perform preimplant treatment planning with documentation of doses to critical structures (26). The ABS-OOTF also recommends that each plaque dosimetry plan undergo independent verification by a qualified medical physicist. The methods of preplanning, dose calculation, plaque design, plaque handling, and quality assurance are recently described in the TG-129 reports [13] and [26]. The ABS-OOTF found that 125I and 103Pd plaques are used by three or more centers in North America, 125I or 106Ru in Europe, solely 106Ru in Japan, and both 106Ru or 90Sr sources in Russia. Russian 90Sr plaques are currently used for uveal melanoma up to 2.5 mm in height and Rb up to 3 mm (10).

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