Expression of transcription factors regulating earlier stages (IR

Expression of transcription factors regulating earlier stages (IRF4, PRDM1) was not affected by BMP-6. Taken together, these results show that BMPs are potent suppressors of naive and memory B cells. When B cells are activated by T-cell-dependent antigens, they start proliferating and can form germinal centers (GCs) where affinity maturation and class switch recombination (CSR) of the immunoglobulin (Ig) take place. Secreted and membrane-bound

molecules made by T cells are important for the GC reaction, and CD40L is one of the essential molecules 1. GC B cells can differentiate to Ig-producing plasma cells, and cytokines like IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β direct which Ig isotype Hydroxychloroquine chemical structure is produced 2–4. IL-21 has emerged as a strong inducer of B-cell differentiation and Ig production in vitro, and the strength of IL-21 exceeds other positive regulators like IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 5–8. The combination of CD40L and IL-21 can induce CSR to IgA and IgG 7. The different stages of plasma cell development are regulated by a web of interacting Palbociclib concentration transcription

factors. Pax5 and BCL6 are highly expressed in GC B cells, but they are not expressed in plasma cells where B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1) and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) are highly expressed 9. BCL6 is required for GC formation 9 and Pax5 upregulates the enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) which is necessary for CSR 10, 11. Another primary function of BCL6 and Pax5 is to repress Blimp-1 and XBP-1 respectively, which are both necessary for plasma cell differentiation 12, 13. To allow terminal B-cell differentiation, Pax5 and BCL6 must be repressed by Blimp-1 14, 15 and the mutual repression of Blimp-1 and BCL6 forms a feedback loop enforcing irreversible plasmacytic differentiation. Blimp-1 induces plasma cell differentiation by repressing genes involved in proliferation and GC functions 15, and indirectly induces XBP-1 expression by downregulating Pax5 16. The role of XBP-1 is to enhance the secretory capacity of plasma cells 17. The

transcription factor interferon regulatory Cediranib (AZD2171) factor 4 (IRF-4), functioning upstream of XBP-1, is also required for plasma cell differentiation and an important role for IRF-4 is to repress BCL6 18, 19. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-β superfamily, and mediate their effects by binding to a hetero-oligomeric complex of type I and type II serine-threonine kinase receptors. In humans, three BMP type I receptors and three BMP type II receptors have been identified 20. When BMPs bind to the receptors, the type II receptor phosphorylates the type I receptor, which subsequently phosphorylates the receptor-regulated Smads: Smad1, Smad5 and Smad8. Together with Smad4, Smad1/5/8 form a complex which translocates to the nucleus and induces transcription of BMP target genes including the DNA-binding protein inhibitors (IDs) ID-1, ID-2 and ID-3 20, 21.

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