F) Photo micrograph of skin tissue of nasal mucosa of mice receiving combined www.selleckchem.com/products/KU-55933.html therapy (group 5) with nearly normal skin (H and E 100X). Discussion Mupirocin is considered as the best topical antibiotic available for gram positive bacteria [23,24] and has been applied for nasal decolonisation since GSK461364 in vivo 1980s. However, emergence of bacterial resistance to mupirocin is fast rising leading to treatment failures and relapses [25-28]. In this study protection afforded by phage was therefore compared with mupirocin treatment. In addition, the additive effect if any, of the two agents as combination therapy in reducing/eliminating MRSA colonisation
was also evaluated. The first step in the colonisation by S. aureus is adherence to nasal epithelial
cells and mucous membrane via bacterial cell surface moieties such as fibronectin binding protein, teichoic acid and adhesins [29-35]. In this study, the adherence and invasion pattern of MRSA 43300 on nasal cells was evaluated. Cultured murine nasal epithelial cells were used as substrates for studying the bacterial adherence. MRSA 43300 showed high adherence of 58.6 ± 7.01 and 73.77 ± 7.8% when added at a multiplicity of 1:1 and 10:1. The results confirmed the colonising ability of S. aureus MRSA 43300 onto learn more the mouse nasal epithelium and its ability to survive in such cells for longer time. Additional five clinical MRSA isolates tested for their adherence ability also showed high adherence to murine nasal cells ranging from 62% to 75%. S. aureus has the ability to invade the epithelial and endothelial cells, osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and human embryonic kidney cell lines [36-41]. These intracellular reservoirs of S. aureus possibly protect the bacteria from extracellular host defense mechanisms and antimicrobial treatment instilled for their elimination. This intracellular Acyl CoA dehydrogenase residency is now considered as one of the reasons of possible long term nasal carriage and persistence seen among chronic nasal carriers [40,42]. Invasion of the epithelium by S. aureus and intracellular localisation of bacteria in the nasal epithelial
cells in vitro has been demonstrated by Sachse et al. . The presence of heavily infected foci of intracellular S. aureus in nasal epithelium cells was demonstrated by inverted confocal laser scan fluorescence and electron microscopy . This was the first in vivo evidence of existence of internalized S. aureus in nasal carriers. The invasion of S. aureus is primarily promoted by fibronectin-binding proteins and integrin-mediated invasion of S. aureus into nonprofessional phagocytes has also been demonstrated [36-39,45-48]. The ability of MRSA 43300 to invade the nasal epithelial cells in this study is supported by the fact that S. aureus ATCC 43300 posesses the fnbB gene which mediates invasion and thus 30% of the adhered population invaded the nasal epithelial cells.