Finally, one can envision that other immunomodulatory agents coul

Finally, one can envision that other immunomodulatory agents could be incorporated into SVPs to further fine-tune the immune response by targeting specific subsets of immune cells, such as CD8 T cells, Th1 cells, Th2 cells, Tfh, Th17 cells, T regulatory cells, B cells, and NK T cells. Collectively, the

data reported here suggest an approach to utilize TLR agonists as parenterally administered vaccine adjuvants in a clinical setting while minimizing the risk of systemic adverse reactions. Co-encapsulation of antigen has the added benefit of co-delivery of adjuvant and antigen directly to APCs. The SVP approach is currently being evaluated in pre-clinical studies such as cancer and chronic infections, where traditional adjuvants are inadequate, and in a Phase 1 clinical study for smoking cessation, where high concentrations MLN0128 molecular weight of antibodies against nicotine are thought to be necessary for therapeutic efficacy. We thank Aditi Chalishazar, Ingrid Soltero and Alyssa Rague for their expert technical help. Conflict of interest: Petr Ilyinskii, Christopher Roy, Conlin O’Neil, Erica Browning, Lynnelle Pittet, David Altreuter, Lloyd Johnston, and Takashi Kei Kishimoto are employees and shareholders click here of Selecta Biosciences. Robert Langer,

Omid Farokhzad and Ulrich H. von Andrian are founders and shareholders of Selecta Biosciences. Frank Alexis, Elena Tonti, Jinjun Shi, Pamela A. Basto, Aleksandar F. Radovic-Moreno and Matteo Iannacone report no conflict of interest.

“CD4 T cells provide ‘help’ in stimulating B cells to mature as well as undergo immunoglobulin Resveratrol class switching and affinity maturation, and as a result are required for development of a successful vaccine. In order to provide help CD4 T cells must recognize HLA Class II epitopes found in the immunogen. Unfortunately not all vaccines have sufficient HLA Class II epitopes to induce a proper T cell helper response in a diverse population. As a consequence there may be some value in designing a ‘universal’ helper T cell epitope to be included in the vaccine. A limiting factor for targeting a specific CD4 response to induce T cell help in a vaccine is the large number of polymorphisms in MHC class II genes. Each individual has specific set of MHC class II alleles, and each allele may have different peptide-binding properties [1]. As a consequence, a universal CD4 T cell helper peptide would have to bind promiscuously to multiple alleles to provide broad coverage across a population. In addition, the peptide would preferably make use of pre-existing CD4 T cell memory to give a rapid and robust response. The concept of the need for a ‘promiscuous’ or universal helper peptide has been studied by a number of groups.

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