Finally, the original alignment was analyzed by maximum likelihoo

Finally, the original alignment was analyzed by maximum likelihood using dnaml but instead of searching for the best tree, the SRT2104 solubility dmso sequences were fitted to the consensus tree. In the resulting tree, the branching was derived from the bootstrap analysis, and the branch lengths from the maximum likelihood analysis. Nucleotide sequence accession Selleckchem AZD8931 numbers The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained in this study are available in GenBank under accession numbers JQ062987 and HM639782 to HM639862. T-RFLP analysis

Sludge sample collection and DNA extraction was carried out as described above. Archaeal 16S rRNA genes were amplified as described above but with the forward primer Arch18F labeled with the fluorescent dye 6 – carboxyfluorescein. Three PCR reactions were prepared from each sludge sample. The PCR products were purified using the Agencourt AMPure system (Beckman Coulter) and digested with 10 units of restriction enzyme at 37°C for at least 16 hours. Restriction enzymes AluI and RsaI were used in separate reactions. The restriction digests were purified and analyzed by capillary gel electrophoresis (3730 DNA Analyzer, Applied Biosystems). The size standard LIZ1200 (Applied Biosystems) was used for fragment size determination. The software Genemapper (Applied Biosystems) was used to quantify the electropherogram data and to generate

the TRF profiles. Peaks from fragments of size 50-1020 bases with a height selleck kinase inhibitor above 50 fluorescent units were analyzed. The total fluorescence of a sample was defined as the sum of the heights of all the peaks in the profile and was interpreted as a measure of the amount of DNA that was loaded on the capillary gel. Only samples with at least two of the three TRF profiles with a total fluorescence above 500 fluorescent

units were considered for further analysis. The two profiles with the highest total fluorescence were chosen from each sample. The TRFs of the DOCK10 two profiles were aligned using a moving average procedure [67] and then checked manually for errors. The two profiles were then normalized as described by Dunbar et al [68] and combined to a single consensus profile by taking the average size, height and areas of the fragments present in both. Consensus profiles with a low total fluorescence, i.e. where low amounts of DNA had been loaded on the gel, were excluded from the subsequent analysis to avoid excessive normalization. 32 and 33 consensus TRF profiles, for the RsaI and AluI analysis, respectively, were normalized and aligned as described above. The TRFs that were removed by normalization constituted only a minor part of the TRF profiles, on average 2 ± 3% and 1 ± 2% of the total fluorescence in the AluI and RsaI profiles, respectively. The dynamics of the Archaea community were evaluated by pair-wise comparisons of TRF profiles using the Bray-Curtis distance coefficient (described in e.g. [69]).

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