From each studied species two adult females were surface steriliz

From each studied species two adult females were surface sterilized before dissection. Their midguts were dissected under a microscope

and transferred to a clean glass slide. The posterior section of the midgut (V4, crypt or caeca-bearing region) was removed, washed three times in sterile phosphate-buffer saline (PBS), macerated and then subjected for DNA extraction. Dissections were carried out under sterile conditions and all tools used were autoclaved before use. 16S rRNA gene sequencing MEK inhibitor analysis The genomic DNA from the V4-midgut section of all individuals was extracted following Sunnucks and Hales [48]. The 16S rRNA gene was selectively amplified from purified genomic DNA by using primers designed for general identification of actinobacteria (S-C-Act-0235-a-S-20: 5′-GGCCTATCAGCTTGTTG-3′ and S-C-Act-0878-a-A-19: 5′-CCGTACTCCCCAGGCGGGG-3′) [49]. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) mixture contained 10 ng gDNA, 1x PCR buffer, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 0.2 mM of each deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate, 0.32 μM of each primer, 0.5 U GoTaq polymerase, and sterile MilliQ H2O to 25μL. PCR condition used the touchdown protocol recommended by Stach et al. [49]. The PCR product was visualized by electrophoresis in a 0.8% selleck (w/v) agarose

gel, and the PCR product was purified using a PCR Product Purification Kit (Qiagen, USA), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The PCR product was then cloned into the pGEM-Teasy Apoptosis antagonist cloning vector and positive clones were selected following the manufacturer’s guidelines (Promega). Plasmids of selected clones (10 per individual, two rounds of 10 clones/pentatomid species) were extracted, purified and subjected to RFLP-PCR analysis prior to sequencing. Amplicons produced with the original primer set (S-C-Act-0235-a-S-20 and S-C-Act-0878-a-A-19) were subjected to restriction

analysis with three informative restriction enzymes, EcoRI, MspI and SalI, and those which showed a different RFLP pattern were selected and sequenced using T7 and M13 universal primers. 16S rRNA gene sequences were compared with entries in the updated EzTaxon database [50]. The nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene sequences of the phylotypes have been deposited with the GenBank database under accession numbers JQ927510–JQ927543. Phylogenetic analysis Sequences were aligned using the MEGA4 software [51], and manually trimmed before further analysis. Phylogenetic trees were inferred by using the maximum-likelihood [52], maximum-parsimony [53] and neighbour-joining [54] tree-making algorithms drawn from the MEGA4 [51] and PHYML [55] packages. The Jukes and Cantor [56] model was used to generate evolutionary distance matrices for the neighbor-joining data.

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