Furthermore, a serum response factor (SRF)-binding cis-element CArG box in the p21 promoter region was required for this myocardin effect. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA-protein binding assays showed that myocardin indirectly bound to the CArG box in the p21 promoter through the interaction with SRF. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed that the levels of myocardin and p21 were both lower in leiomyosarcoma samples than in normal smooth muscle tissue. Taken together, our results indicate that the downregulation of myocardin expression facilitates cell cycle
progression via the reduction of p21 expression in human leimyosarcomas and suggest that myocardin could be a useful therapeutic target for this disease. Cancer Res; 70 (2); 501-11. (C)2010 AACR.”
“Decoding the psychological dimensions of human odor perception has long been a central issue of olfactory research. Odor VX-770 in vitro scientists as well as fragrance professionals have tried to establish comprehensive standards for the description, measurement, and prediction of odor quality characteristics. As odor percepts could not be linked to a few measurable
physicochemical features of odorous compounds or physiological characteristics of the olfactory system, odor qualities have often been assessed by perception-based ratings. Although they have been applied for more than 5 decades, these psychological approaches have not yielded a comprehensive Selleck ALK inhibitor or generally Selleck Sotrastaurin accepted classification system yet. We assumed that design and methodology of these studies have largely prevented the development of unbiased odor arrangements. To address this issue, we reviewed 28 perception-based classification studies and found that their outcome has been largely determined by 4 influencing factors: 1) interindividual differences in perceptual and verbal abilities of subjects, 2) stimuli characteristics, 3) approaches of data collection, and 4) methods of data analysis. We discuss the effects of each factor in detail and illustrate how odor systems have reflected perceptual qualities as well
as the conditions under which these have been assessed.”
“Microbial fermentations are potential producers of sustainable energy carriers. In this study, ethanol and hydrogen production was studied by two thermophilic bacteria (strain AK15 and AK17) isolated from geothermal springs in Iceland. Strain AK15 was affiliated with Clostridium uzonii (98.8%), while AK17 was affiliated with Thermoanaerobacterium aciditolerans (99.2%) based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Both strains fermented a wide variety of sugar residues typically found in lignocellulosic materials, and some polysaccharides. In the batch cultivations, strain AK17 produced ethanol from glucose and xylose fermentations of up to 1.6 mol-EtOH/mol-glucose (80% of the theoretical maximum) and 1.1 mol-EtOH/mol-xylose (66%), repectively. The hydrogen yields by AK17 were up to 1.2 mol-H-2/mol-glucose (30% of the theoretical maximum) and 1.