In addition, the effect of CRIg-Fc on above cytokine production w

In addition, the effect of CRIg-Fc on above cytokine production was also tested in vitro. Splenocytes from control PBS-treated EAU mice were cultured in vitro and activated with 25 μg/mL of IRBP peptides 1–20 for 48 h in the absence or presence of different concentrations of CRIg-Fc. Supernatants were then collected for CBA. BM cells were isolated from the femurs and tibia of 9-wk-old mice.

Cells were then cultured for 7 days at 37°C in DMEM containing 10% heat-inactivated FCS, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, 2 mM L-glutamine, 100 U/mL penicillin–streptomycin (all from PAA Laboratories, Somerset, UK), 50 mM 2-mercaptoethanol (Invitrogen, Paisley, UK), and 50 pg/mL M-CSF generated from L929 fibroblast conditional media. BMDM were then harvested and seeded in 24-well plates. To induce NO production, BMDM were stimulated with 100 ng/mL LPS (Sigma-Aldrich) in the presence or absence of different concentrations of CRIg-Fc or control protein (mouse IgG1, anti-gp120). check details Twenty-four hours later, cells were harvested for qRT-PCR analysis and supernatants were collected for measuring NO production. The amount of NO in the supernatants of culture macrophages was quantified using a standard Greiss assay

following the manufacture’s instruction. Briefly, 50 μL of supernatant was incubated with 50 μL Gress reagent (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) in 96-well flat-bottom plates for 10 min at room temperature. Samples were measured using a plate reader at absorbance wave length of 540 nm and a reference filter of 630 nm. Clinical and histological grades of EAU were LGK 974 assessed using the Mann–Whitney test. The average of both eyes of each mouse was treated as one statistical event. T-cell proliferation and cytokine production and qRT-PCR data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA multiple comparison test (Dunnett’s test) or Student’s t-test. All data are generated as mean±SEM. Probability values of p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. This work is supported by the American Health Assistance Foundation for Macular

Degeneration (M2007_106 to H. X.). The authors thank Dr. Menno van Lookeren Campagne (Genentech, Rebamipide CA, USA) for providing CRIg fusion protein (CRIg-Fc) and rat anti-mouse CRIg monoclonal antibody used in this study. Conflict of interest: The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest. Detailed facts of importance to specialist readers are published as ”Supporting Information”. Such documents are peer-reviewed, but not copy-edited or typeset. They are made available as submitted by the authors. “
“Endodontic infections are polymicrobial infections resulting in bone destruction and tooth loss. The host response to these infections is complex, including both innate and adaptive mechanisms. Osteopontin (OPN), a secreted, integrin-binding protein, functions in the regulation of immune responses and enhancement of leucocyte migration.

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