In the absence of any specific associated investigations, an expl

In the absence of any specific associated investigations, an explanation concerning the buy Belnacasan mechanisms involved remains debated. Given that we chose a low rotation speed for the ECC exercise, the participants in our study did not exert the same external mechanical power during the CON and ECC exercise sessions. We accepted this limitation to our study from the outset. Indeed

it has been shown that a bout of ECC exercise at moderate intensity, corresponding to 40% of the maximum single-leg concentric cycling power, but at a pedaling rate of 60rpm, led to both muscle pain and reduced exercise capacity.25 This can be explained at least in part by the greater difficulty in achieving ECC contraction, which is a more complex neuromotor task than CON contractions,

as it requires recruitment of larger areas of the cortex.31 Another limit was the position in ECC versus CON exercises. In CON exercise, subjects sat on a conventional ergometer, whereas in ECC, subjects were semiseated. Such a AZD2014 price difference, conditioned by the specific particularities of these 2 modes of exercises, could induce some different responses of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and muscle systems that could diminish the strength of our results. However, the internal mechanical power, determined by all the internal forces involved in the movement (inertia, friction, work done against gravity), is widely different in CON and ECC exercises.39 Our objective in this study was therefore limited to propose a simple, inexpensive technique (the force applied to the pedals) aiming to determine a well-tolerated, moderate-intensity ECC exercise to be used in clinical practice. Another limitation is that we did not evaluate anaerobic metabolism. Finally, the different findings must be further checked in deconditioned

subjects with chronic diseases. This procedure using the Borg Scale to evaluate the RPE during a CON exercise appears to be effective and safe to prescribe the intensity of an ECC exercise at a reduced speed, by determining the force the subject needs to exert on the pedals. This method can be used however to establish a well-tolerated level of ECC exercise, which could be used as a preconditioning level at the initial phase of an ECC training program. a. Custo med GmbH, Leibnizstr. 7, D-85521 Ottobrunn, Germany. We thank Philip Bastable for reviewing the English, and Philippe D’Athis, PhD for his help during the revision of the manuscript. “
“For a number of decades, ships-of-opportunity such as ferries have been used to collect hydrographic data in coastal and oceanic waters. In Norway the collection of salinity and temperature data on a ferry running along the coast started as early as the 1930s.

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