In vitro experiments on cancer cell lines alone cannot predict th

In vitro experiments on cancer cell lines alone cannot predict the in

vivo effect of temperature or adrenaline. Tumor CYT387 supplier tissue penetration is the limiting factor for the activity of the chemotherapeutic agents [29]. It has been hypothesized that the depth of penetration of cisplatin could be increased by hyperthermia through its effects on convection and diffusion in tissues, increasing cell uptake of the drug, tumor blood flow and vascular permeability. Despite the clinical development of HIPEC with platinum compounds, only a few studies have been done in order to establish the basis of this technique. Two contradictory studies have been reported in rat models of peritoneal carcinomatosis [27, 30, 31]. Differences in the hyperthermia technique could explain this discrepancy. Los et al. immersed the whole animal in a thermostatically controlled water bath, resulting in whole-body hyperthermia rather than locoregional hyperthermia [27]. This could have modified both blood concentrations and vascular permeability,

and may explain why plasmatic cisplatin was about 3 times greater at 41°5 than at 38°C and why platinum content was about twice as great in all organs, including the extra-abdominal selleck inhibitor organs such as the lung. Our technique allowed us to heat only the abdominal cavity. Using this method of heating, a 1-hour HIPEC at 42°C did not increase platinum content in the peritoneal tumor nodules or in the peritoneal wall lining. Abdominal hyperthermia was poorly tolerated by the animals; sometimes it was even necessary to stop the procedure

before 60 minutes. This poor tolerance made it impossible to compare the two methods in terms of survival. Our negative results on HIPEC with cisplatin are consistent with those obtained by other authors using similar methods [31, 32]. An explanation of this negative result could be the temperature-related increase in blood flow through the peritoneal nodules and the peritoneum due to local vasodilatation and resulting in an increase in the wash out of the cisplatin [33]. In contrast with heat, adrenaline at a concentration of 2 mg/l for 2 hour achieved a 2 to 3-fold increase pheromone in platinum content in the peritoneal tumor nodules. Such an increase boosts the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin in vitro (Figure 2). Previous rat experiments have shown us that 2 hours of IPC are required to observe the enhancing effect of adrenaline [17, 19], and our following clinical trials have taken into account this parameter [20, 21]. Experimental data show that adrenaline is more effective and better tolerated than hyperthermia in order to enhance the penetration of cisplatin. It also minimizes the selleck products systemic absorption of cisplatin. Hyperthermia was not well tolerated in this rat model, but it is in humans. Future clinical trials performing IPC with cisplatin for ovarian carcinoma should compare the effectiveness of adrenaline and hyperthermia in order to improve the effect of intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

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